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Fracture and Dislocation - Role of Homoeopathy

© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma M.D. (Homoeopathy)

Dr. Swati Vishnoi B.H.M.S.

For well illustrated and complete article, please see attached pdf file below-

Fracture and Dislocation and Homoeopathy.pdf

Contents

Introduction. 2

Fracture. 2

Dislocation. 2

Subluxation. 3

Types of dislocation. 3

Congenital 3

Acquired. 3

Clinical Features. 3

Classification of Fracture. 4

Causes of fracture. 4

Relation to surrounding tissues. 4

Pattern of fracture. 4

Healing of fracture. 6

Healing time of fracture. 6

Union. 6

Consolidation. 6

Factors affecting the rate of fracture healing. 7

COMPLICATIONS OF FRACTURE. 7

Complications related to the fracture itself 7

Complication caused by associated injury. 7

Delayed union. 8

Mal union. 8

Infection. 8

Shortening. 8

Avascular necrosis. 8

Role of Homoeopathy in treatment of Fractures and dislocations. 9

Chief remedies for bone fractures and dislocations- 9

Repertory of Bone Fractures and dislocations. 9

Bibliography. 13

 

Introduction

Bones make up the skeleton of the body allow the body for ability to interact with environment and lift out body up against gravity. Bones are attachment points for muscles which allow to run, jump, sit, kneel, grasp, and lift.

Bones also protect organs from potential damage, and the bone marrow is responsible for blood cell production. Bones are the body's storage area for calcium.  

A broken bone or bone fracture occurs when a force exerted against a bone is stronger than the bone can bear.

Fracture

Complete or incomplete break in the continuity of a bone.

 

Dislocation

A total loss of contact between the two ends of bones.

 

Dislocation - Distance between medial border of humeral head and anterior glenoid rim > 6 mm.

Subluxation

Incomplete or partial dislocation of a joint

 

Subluxation - The clavicle is elevated due to rupture of the coracoclavicular ligaments

Types of dislocation

Congenital

   eg: CDH

 

Acquired

   Trauma

   Pathology

   Paralysis

Clinical Features

   Shock (severe injury)

   Pain

   Oedema

   Bruising

   Local tenderness

   Muscle spasm

   Loss of function

Classification of Fracture

Can be classified in three ways

  1. The cause of fracture
  2. Relation to surrounding tissues
  3. The pattern of the fracture

Causes of fracture

   Traumatic

  • Direct violence
  • Indirect violence

   Stress

   Pathological

   Avulsion- the forcible tearing away of a body part by trauma or surgery.

 

Avulsion-fracture of the tibial tuberosity that extends whiles the joint. Type IIIa Watson-Jones classifications

Relation to surrounding tissues

   Closed fracture / Simple fracture

  • No communication between the fracture bone and the body surface

   Open fracture / Compound fracture

  • Direct communication exists between the body surface and the fractured bone ends

   Complicated fracture

  • In association with the fracture other important structures have been damaged. e. g: nerves, vessels, viscera organ etc.

Pattern of fracture

   Complete

  • The bone is completely divided into 2 separate fragments. The fracture line itself maybe transverse, oblique and spiral.

   Incomplete

  • It involves only one surface of the bone

   In children –greenstick fracture

   Comminuted

  • More than two fragments.

   Compression or crush

  • Usually occurs in cancellous bone

 Segmental

  • Proximal, middle and distal third

 Displacement

  • Undisplaced
  • Displaced
  • Impacted
  • Stable

 

Healing of fracture

There are following stages of healing-

   Haematoma

   Subperiosteal & endosteal cellular reaction

   Callus formation

   Consolidation

   Remodelling

Healing time of fracture

There are two major events taking time to heal-

   Union

   Consolidation

Union

   Union usually takes 3-10 weeks after fracture occurred

   Partial repair of the bone

   Initial callus formation (not reach full bone maturity)

   Minimal movement of the fracture site

   Painful with pressure or weight bearing

   FWB (Fracture Walker Brace) is contraindicated

   Encourage PWB (Partial weight bearing)

   X Ray –fracture line still visible

   Healing time of fracture

Consolidation

   Usually takes approximately double the union time & full remodelling double   the consolidation time.

   Full repair and maturity of the bone.

   Start full function

 

Approximate healing time

Fracture

Union (wks)

Consolidation (wks)

Prox 3rd humerus

7-10 days

3-4

Distal 3rd radius ulna

4-6

8-10

Scaphoid

3-4

6-8

Prox 3rd Femur

4-6

8-12

Distal 3rd Femur

6

12

Prox 3rd tibia

6-8

12-16

Distal 3rd tibia

8-10

16-20

 

 

Factors affecting the rate of fracture healing

  1. Type of bone
  2. Pattern of fracture
  3. Blood supply
  4. Fixation
  5. Age

COMPLICATIONS OF FRACTURE

Complications related to the fracture itself

   Non union

   Infection

   Delayed union

   Shortening

   Mal union

   Avascular necrosis

Complication caused by associated injury

   Injury to: major blood vessels, nerves, viscera, tendon, Fat embolism and injuries and post traumatic affection of joints

   Non union

  1. Fracture failed to unite.
  2. The gap between the bones is filled with fibrous tissue & form pseudoarthrosis

X ray : sclerotic or dense and rounded

Causes: Infection, Poor blood supply, Poor fixation

Delayed union

   Fracture takes longer time to heal than expected time.

Mal union

   Union of the fractured fragment in an imperfect position.

   Can be prevented by competent initial treatment.

Causes: Poor initial treatment

Infection

   Occurs in open fracture, contaminated wound leads osteomyelitis.

Shortening

   Caused by mal union or crush fracture.

Avascular necrosis

   Necrosis of the bone as a result of lack of blood supply.

Role of Homoeopathy in treatment of Fractures and dislocations

Chief remedies for bone fractures and dislocations-

Acon, Agar, Agn, Alum, Ambr, Am-c, Am-m, Anac, Ang, Anthrac, Arn, Ars, Asar, Bar-c, Bell, Bov, Bry, Calc, Calc-f, Calc-p, Calen, Caps, Carb-an, Carb-v, Caust, Chel, Cocc, Colo, Mag-c, Con, Croc, Dulc, Euph, Eup-per, Fl-ac, Graph, Hep, Hyper, Ign, Kali-I, Kali-n, Kreos, Lach, Lachn, Led, Lyc, Mag-m, M-ambo, Merc, Mez, Nat-c, Nat-m, Nit-ac, Nux-v, Petr, Ph-ac, Phos, Psor, Puls, Rhod, Rhust, Ruta, Sep, Sil, Spig, Stann, Staph, Stict, Stron-c, Sulph, Symph, Thuja, Zinc, etc…

Repertory of Bone Fractures and dislocations

Ankles - DISLOCATION, ankle joint, sprains- agn. anac. Arn. bell-p. BRY. calc-f. calc-p. carb-an. kali-bi. Led. m-aust. nat-ar. nat-c. nux-v. ph-ac. phos. prun. rhod. Rhus-t. Ruta sil. stront-c. sulph.

Ankles - PAIN, ankles - dislocated, as if - as if it would dislocate- calc-p. calc. nat-c. Ruta

Ankles - SPRAINED, ankles- agar. ANAC. ang. ARN. asc-t. Bell-p. BRY. Calc. caust. eup-per. fl-ac. gran. graph. kali-bi. LED. nat-c. nat-s. nit-ac. plb. RHUS-T. RUTA Sil. Stront-c. Valer. verat. zinc.

Ankles - WEAK, ankles - dislocation, and spraining, easy, foot bends under- calc-p. nat-c. RUTA stront-c.

Arms - DISCOLORATION, arms - yellow, spots - DISLOCATION, as if, feeling- Ant-t. merc. rhus-t.

Arms - WEAK, arms - hip, joints, with pain in, as if dislocated, worse when walking- psor.

arn. asaf. CALC-P. calen. lyc. nit-ac. ruta sil. sulph. SYMPH.

BACK - INFLAMMATION - cord - dislocation, from a- acon. arn. hyos. merc. rhus-t.

BACK - INFLAMMATION - cord - fracture, from a- acon. phos.

BACK - INFLAMMATION - spine - spinal cord - dislocation, from a- acon. arn. hyos. merc. rhus-t.

BACK - INFLAMMATION - spine - spinal cord - fracture, from a- acon. phos.

Back - INJURIES, back – dislocations- ARN. bell-p. BRY. calc-f. CALC. caust. Coloc. hyper. lyc. nux-v. phos. RHUS-T. Ruta stront-c. sulph. zinc.

Bones - BRITTLE, bones - fractured, often- CALC-P. calc. Merc. Sil.

Bones - brittle, fractured etc- asaf. bufo calc-f. calc-p. Calc. Lyc. Merc. par. ph-ac. ruta Sil. Sulph. symph. thuj.

Bones - BROKEN, bones - compound, fracture- ang. ARN. bry. calc-p. Calc. Calen. con. crot-h. hep. hyper. iod. Lach. Petr. ph-ac. phos. puls. rhus-t. RUTA sil. staph. symph.

Bones - BROKEN, bones - fractured, often- CALC-P. calc. Merc. Sil.

Bones - BROKEN, bones - inflammation, after fracture of tibia- ANTHRACI.

Bones - BROKEN, bones - union, of fractures, to promote- arn. asaf. CALC-P. calen. lyc. nit-ac. ruta sil. sulph. SYMPH.

Bones - DECAY, of bones - expulsion, promotes, of necrotic bone - assisted, after fracture of head of femur- Cocc.

Bones - DISLOCATED, feel as if out of joint, in getting up shakes herself to get them in place- med.

BONES – Fracture- Arn. Calc-f. Calc-p. calc. calen. croc. ferr. iod. kali-i. Ruta sil. Sulph. Symph. valer.

Bones - INJURIES, bones, bruised, blows - brittle, bones, fractured often- CALC-P. calc. Merc. Sil.

Bones - INJURIES, bones, bruised, blows - compound, fracture- ang. Anthraci. ARN. bry. calc-p. Calc. Calen. con. crot-h. hep. hyper. iod. Lach. Petr. ph-ac. phos. puls. rhus-t. RUTA sil. staph. symph.

Bones - INJURIES, bones, bruised, blows - fractures, disposition to- CALC-P. calc. Merc.

Bones - INJURIES, bones, bruised, blows - inflammation, after fracture of tibia- ANTHRACI.

Bones - PAIN, bones - fractures, in, old- mag-m.

Clinical - amputation, pain, phantom pains - compound, fracture of left upper arm, after- Calen.

Clinical - dislocations, joints, of - easy, dislocation- am-c. Bry. Calc. cann-i. Carb-an. carb-v. con. hep. kali-n. Lyc. merc. Nat-c. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Nux-v. Petr. Phos. Rhus-t. Ruta Stront-c. Sulph.

Clinical - dislocations, joints, of- Agn. Am-c. ambr. ang. Arn. bar-c. Bell. bov. Bry. Calc. cann-i. Carb-an. carb-v. caust. con. Form. graph. hep. Ign. Kali-n. kreos. Lyc. Merc. mez. mosch. Nat-c. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Nux-v. Petr. Phos. Puls. rhod. Rhus-t. Ruta sabin. sep. spig. stann. staph. Stront-c. Sulph. zinc.

CONDITIONS OF AGGRAVATION AND AMELIORATION IN GENERAL - Dislocations and sprains, agg.- AGN. Am-c. ambr. ang. ARN. bar-c. bov. BRY. CALC. CARB-AN. Carb-v. Caust. con. Graph. hep. IGN. Kali-n. kreos. LYC. M-ambo. MERC. mez. mosch. NAT-C. NAT-M. NIT-AC. NUX-V. PETR. PHOS. PULS. Rhod. RHUS-T. RUTA sabin. SEP. Sil. Spig. stann. staph. SULPH. zinc.

Constitutions - ELDERLY, constitutions - bones, non-union of fractured- CALC-P.

Dislocation easy, spontaneous- ars. Calc. carb-an. chel. graph. lyc. nat-c. phos. prun. rhus-t. ruta sep.

Dreams - FRACTURE of, jaw- hecla rauw.

DROPSY - joints - fractures, after- bov.

EXTERNAL THROAT - PAIN - sprained, dislocative- agar. ambr. ars. asar. calc. carb-an. chinin-s. con. merc. petr. sars.

EXTREMITIES - DISLOCATION - Hip; spontaneous dislocation of- bell. bry. Calc-f. CALC. CAUST. Coloc. Kali-c. lyc. Nat-m. puls. Rhus-t. ruta sulph. Thuj. zinc.

EXTREMITIES – DISLOCATION- drym-cor. oxal-c. rham-pr.

EXTREMITIES - DISLOCATION; EASY- ars. Calc. carb-an. chel. graph. lyc. nat-c. phos. prun. rhus-t. ruta sep.

EXTREMITIES - FRACTURES - Legs - Bones - Tibia - open fracture- Anthraci.

EXTREMITIES - FRACTURES - open fractures- Calen.

EXTREMITIES – FRACTURES- arn. bell-p-sp. BRY. CALC-P. Calc. Calen. eup-per. RUTA Sil. SYMPH.

EXTREMITIES - GANGRENE - Leg - fracture of Tibia, with compound- Anthraci.

EXTREMITIES - GANGRENE - lower limbs - legs - bones, tibia, with compound fracture of- ANTHRACI.

EXTREMITIES - INJURIES - Hand - fracture with laceration- Hyper.

EXTREMITIES - INJURIES - Tibia, compound fracture of, with inflammation or gangrene- Anthraci.

EXTREMITIES - INJURIES, - Hand, - fracture with laceration- Hyper.

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - Bones - fractures; in old- bamb-a. symph.

EXTREMITIES - SWELLING - general - edematous - joints - fractures, after- bov.

EXTREMITIES - SWELLING - general - joints - fracture, after- bov.

EXTREMITIES - SWELLING - Joints - edematous - fractures, after- bov.

EXTREMITIES - SWELLING - Joints - fracture, after- bov.

EXTREMITIES - WEAKNESS - joints - dislocation, after- rheum

FACE - Jaws - Dislocated easy- ign. Petr. Rhus-t. staph.

FACE - Lower jaw and maxillary joints - dislocation, easy- IGN. Petr. phos. RHUS-T. Staph.

FACE - Lower jaw and maxillary joints - dislocative pain- cor-r. IGN. M-ARCT. op. petr. RHUS-T. rob. spig. spong. staph.

Feet - DISLOCATION, as if, feeling- arum-t. bell.

Female sexual organs - Dislocation of hip joint with pain in uterus- sol-t-ae.

Fevers - INTERMITTENT, fever, ague, malaria - quotidian, fever - 5 pm., preceded by yawning and pain in maxillary joint, as if dislocated- rhus-t.

Fevers - QUOTIDIAN, fever - 5 pm., preceded by yawning and pain in maxillary joint, as if dislocated- rhus-t.

Fingers - joints - dislocation, easy- hep.

GANGRENE, general - leg, fracture, after - tibia, fracture, after- Anthraci.

GANGRENE, general - leg, fracture, after- anthraci. Lach.

GENERALITIES - DROPSY - Joints - fractures, after- bov.

GENERALITIES - INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises - bones, fractures- acon. ang. anthraci. ARN. ars. asaf. bell-p. bry. CALC-F. CALC-P. CALC. CALEN. CARB-AC. con. cortico. cortiso. croc. crot-h. des-ac. EUP-PER. ferr. fl-ac. hecla hep. hyper. iod. kali-i. lach. led. lyc. mag-m. mang. merc. mez. nit-ac. PETR. PH-AC. phos. PULS. ran-b. rhus-t. rob. RUTA sep. SIL. staph. stront-c. SUL-AC. sulph. SYMPH. THYR. valer.

GENERALITIES - INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises - bones, fractures - compound fractureang. ANTHRACI. ARN. CALC. CALEN. con. crot-h. hep. hyper. iod. LACH. PETR. ph-ac. phos. puls. rhus-t. RUTA sil. staph. symph.

GENERALITIES - INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises - Bones, fractures- acon. ang. anthraci. Arn. ars. asaf. bell-p. bry. Calc-f. CALC-P. Calc. Calen. Carb-ac. con. cortico. cortiso. croc. crot-h. des-ac. Eup-per. ferr. fl-ac. hecla hep. hyper. iod. kali-i. lach. lyc. mag-m. mang. merc. mez. nit-ac. Petr. Ph-ac. phos. Puls. rhus-t. RUTA sep. Sil. staph. stront-c. Sul-ac. sulph. SYMPH. Thyr. valer.

GENERALITIES - INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises - Bones, fractures - compound fracture- ang. Anthraci. ARN. Calc. Calen. con. crot-h. hep. hyper. iod. Lach. Petr. ph-ac. phos. puls. rhus-t. RUTA sil. staph. symph.

GENERALITIES - INJURIES, blows, falls and bruises - dislocation, luxation- acon. agar. AGN. alum. AM-C. am-m. AMBR. anac. ang. ant-c. ant-t. ARN. ars. asar. aur. bar-c. BELL. bov. BRY. calad. CALC-F. calc-p. CALC. camph. cann-s. caps. CARB-AN. CARB-V. CARL. CAUST. cham. chel. chin. cina cocc. COLOC. con. croc. cycl. dig. dros. dulc. euph. FERR-S. FORM. GRAPH. hell. hep. IGN. ip. kali-c. KALI-N. kreos. lach. led. LYC. m-arct. m-aust. mag-c. mag-m. mang. meny. MERC. mez. mosch. mur-ac. NAT-C. NAT-M. NIT-AC. nux-m. NUX-V. par. PETR. ph-ac. PHOS. plat. plb. prun. psor. PULS. ran-b. rheum rhod. RHUS-T. RUTA sabin. sars. seneg. sep. sil. SPIG. spong. stann. staph. STRONT-C. SULPH. thuj. valer. verat. verb. zinc.

GENERALITIES - PAIN - bones - fractures, in old- mag-m.

GENERALITIES - PAIN - General - bones - old fractures, in- mag-m.

GENERALITIES - SHOCKS - injury, from - fractures, from- acon. arn.

GENERALS - ABSCESSES - Bones, of – fractures- sil.

Generals - AMPUTATION, pain, phantom pains - compound, fracture of left upper arm, after- Calen.

GENERALS - CONVALESCENCE; ailments during - bones; fracture of- osteo-mye.

Generals - Fracture in joints- m-ambo.

GENERALS - HISTORY; personal – dislocations- tub.

GENERALS - INJURIES - Bones; fractures of - compound fracture- ARN. Calen. crot-h. hyper. Lach.

GENERALS - INJURIES - Bones; fractures of- acon. ang. Arn. asaf. asar. bell-p-sp. bell-p. bry. Calc-f. calc-p. calc. Calen. CARB-AC. con. cortico. cortiso. croc. dulc. Eup-per. ferr. hecla hep. HYPER. iod. kali-i. led. lyc. nit-ac. Petr. Ph-ac. phos. Puls. ran-b. rhus-t. rob. RUTA Sil. SPIG. staph. stront-c. Sul-ac. sulph. Symph. valer. vanil.

GENERALS - INJURIES – dislocation- AGN. Am-c. Ambr. ang. ARN. bar-c. Bell. bov. Bry. calc-p. CALC. cann-s. caps. Carb-an. Carb-v. Carl. Caust. Coloc. con. Croc. Ferr-s. Form. Graph. hep. IGN. Kali-n. kreos. lach. led. LYC. m-ambo. m-arct. m-aust. mag-c. Merc. mez. mosch. NAT-C. NAT-M. Nit-ac. Nux-v. par. PETR. PHOS. psor. PULS. rheum Rhod. RHUS-T. Ruta sabin. sep. sil. Spig. stann. staph. Sulph. tub. zinc.

GENERALS - PAIN - Bones - fracture; point of- mag-m. symph.

GENERALS - SHOCK - injuries; after - fractures; from- acon. arn.

GENERALS - SWELLING - Joints; of - fractures; after- bov.

Hands - DISLOCATION, fingers, joints, easy- bell. hep. teucr.

Hands - PAIN, fingers - joints - first - dislocation, as of- alum. ruta

HEAD - INJURIES of the head, after - fracture of skull, splintered bones- acon. arn. calc-p. Calen. hyper. symph.

HEAD - PAIN - Skull – fractured- bell. glon.

Hip joint - dislocation spontaneous- coloc. rhus-t. thuj.

Hips - Cramping, pain, hip and lumbar region - moving, when, as if stiff or dislocated- ang.

Hips - dislocation, sensation- agar. am-c. am-m. ang. bamb-a. bry. calc-p. Caust. chel. con. dulc. euph. fl-ac. hura Ign. ip. irid-met. iris kreos. laur. mag-m. merc. mosch. nat-m. osm. pall. psor. Puls. sanic. sep. sulph. tarax. thuj. tril-p. zinc.

Hips - dislocation, spontaneous, of hip- Aesc. Bell. Bry. Calc-f. Calc. carb-an. Caust. Coloc. dros. eupi. ip. kali-i. kreos. lyc. merc. nit-ac. pall. puls. Rhus-t. Ruta sil. sulph. Thuj. zinc.

Hips - hip-joint, disease - dislocation, with, of head of femur- Calc.

Jaws - dislocation, easy- ign. petr. Rhus-t. staph.

Joints - EDEMA, joints, dropsy - fractures, after- bov. Bry. led.

Joints - swelling - oedematous, fractures, after- bov.

Joints - weak - dislocation, after- rheum

Limbs - AMPUTATION, pain, phantom pains - compound, fracture of left upper arm, after- Calen.

LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM - Knees - Dislocation of patella, on going upstairs- cann-s.

LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM - Nape of Neck - Dislocated, bruised feeling- bell. caust. fago. Lachn.

LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM - Wrists - Pains - Sprained, dislocated feeling- bry. cist. Eup-per. Hipp. ox-ac. Rhus-t. Ruta ulm-c.

Lower extremities - Dislocation in hip joint, when walking- bry.

Lower extremities - Fracture in legs- m-arct.

Lumbar back - dislocative pain- eup-per. lach.

Lumbar back - vertebrae, of - dislocated or as if- sanic.

Malaria, infection, ague - quotidian, fever - 5 pm., preceded by yawning and pain in maxillary joint, as if dislocated- rhus-t.

Neck and back - Fracture in back- sul-ac.

NECK AND EXTERNAL THROAT - Sprained or dislocative pain- agar. ambr. ars. Asar. calc. carb-an. merc. sars.

Oedema - joints of, fractures, after- bov.

Pelvis - DISLOCATED, as if, sacrum- agar. nux-v.

RESPIRATION - Impeded by - back - dislocative or sprained pain in- petr.

RESPIRATION - Impeded by - scapulae - sprained or dislocative pain in- petr.

SENSATIONS AND COMPLAINTS IN GENERAL - Dislocated or wrenched easily, spontaneous- Agn. am-c. bry. Calc-p. CALC. Caps. Carb-an. carb-v. COLOC. Con. hep. kali-n. Led. Lyc. mag-c. merc. NAT-C. Nat-m. Nit-ac. Nux-v. PETR. Phos. RHUS-T. RUTA sep. staph. Sulph.

shock, traumatic - fractures, from- acon. Arn. bry. stront-c.

Shoulders - PAIN, shoulders - dislocation, as of- ant-t. caps. cor-r. Croc. fl-ac. ign. mag-c. mag-m. mez. myrt-c. nicc. olnd. RHUS-T.

Sleep - INSOMNIA, sleeplessness - fracture, after reposition of- arn. Stict.

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS - fracture, after reposition of- Stict.

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS - general - fracture, after reposition of- STICT.

TEETH - Dislocative pain- nux-v.

TEETH - PAIN - dislocated, as if- NUX-V.

Upper extremities - Dislocation in right carpal joint, severe pain and- tub.

UPPER EXTREMITIES - Dislocative pain, joints fingers- acon. alum. fl-ac. GRAPH. Ign. Kali-n. laur. Lyc. mag-c. Nat-m. nux-m. Phos. rhod. stann. Sulph.

Wrists - DISLOCATION, feeling- agar. am-c. am-m. ang. Arn. Bry. bufo carb-an. cina eup-per. gels. ign. mez. nux-v. Ox-ac. phos. rhus-t. sars. thuj. tub.

Wrists - PAIN, wrists - dislocation, as of- Arn. Eup-per. phos.

Bibliography

 Chapter26.OrthopedicEmergencies- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Emergency Medicine

 Discharge Instructions- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries

 Encyclopedia Homoeopathica

 Radar 10

 Subluxation and Dislocation- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries > Orthopedic Emergencies

 Bone Healing- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics > Chapter 3. Musculoskeletal Trauma Surgery > The Healing Process

 Children's Fractures & Dislocations- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, 13e > Chapter 40. Orthopedic Surgery > Pediatric Orthopedics

 Children's Fractures & Dislocations- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, 13e > Chapter 40. Orthopedic Surgery > Pediatric Orthopedics

 Complications- Principles of Critical Care > Chapter 96. Pelvic Ring Injuries and Extremity Trauma > Extremity Trauma

 Complications- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries

 Dislocation or subluxation: The terms subluxation and dislocation are often used interchangeably....- Basic Radiology, 2e > Chapter 7. Imaging of Joints > Exercise 7-2. Joint Trauma > Discussion

 Dislocations- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, 13e > Chapter 42. Hand Surgery > Skeletal Injuries of the Hand > Metacarpals & Phalanges

 Exercise 6-1. Trauma- Basic Radiology, 2e > Chapter 6. Musculoskeletal Imaging

 Follow-Up- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries

 Fracture Assessment- Principles of Critical Care > Chapter 96. Pelvic Ring Injuries and Extremity Trauma > Extremity Trauma

 Fractures & Dislocations- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Emergency Medicine > Chapter 26. Orthopedic Emergencies > General Orthopedic Principles

 Fractures are often diagnosed by the obstetrician, who may feel or hear a snap during delivery....- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics > Chapter 1. The Newborn Infant > Common Problems in the Term Newborn > Birth Trauma

 Fractures- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics > Chapter 11. Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery

 Fractures- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics > Chapter 13. Rehabilitation > Geriatric Orthopedics

 Fractures- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics > Chapter 24. Orthopedics > Trauma

 Fractures Suggestive of Physical Abuse- The Atlas of Emergency Medicine > Chapter 15. Child Abuse > Physical Abuse

 Fractures- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter e298.2. Military Medicine > Extremity Trauma

 Healing Mechanisms- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics > Chapter 1. Basic Science in Orthopedic Surgery > Biomechanics & Biomaterials > Biologic Tissues in Orthopedics > Bones

 Irreducible Dislocation- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries > Orthopedic Consultation in the ED

 Key Syndrome Fractures- DeGowin's Diagnostic Examination > Chapter 13. The Spine, Pelvis and Extremities > Musculoskeletal and Soft Tissue Syndromes > Conditions Primarily Affecting Bone

 Management of Osteoporotic Fractures- Harrison's Online > Chapter 348. Osteoporosis > Osteoporosis: Treatment

 Orthopedic injuries to these structures include the following:- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries > Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries: Introduction

 Pathophysiology of Fractures- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries

 Periprosthetic Fracture- CURRENT Rheumatology Diagnosis & Treatment > Chapter 60. Approach to the Patient with a Painful Prosthetic Joint > Differential Diagnosis

 Radiographic Evaluation- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries

 Skeletal injuries may be detected when a child presents with unexplained swelling of an...- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 290. Child Abuse and Neglect > Physical Abuse > Clinical Features > Physical Examination

 Table 8–10 Risk Factors for Fractures- reenspan’s Basic & Clinical Endocrinology, 9e > Chapter 8. Metabolic Bone Disease > Bone Anatomy and Remodeling > Osteoporosis

 Traumatic Subluxations & Dislocations- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics > Chapter 24. Orthopedics > Trauma

 Treatment- Principles of Critical Care > Chapter 96. Pelvic Ring Injuries and Extremity Trauma > Extremity Trauma

 Prehospital Care- Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine > Chapter 264. Initial Evaluation and Management of Orthopedic Injuries

 Principles of Operative Fracture Fixation- CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Orthopedics > Chapter 3. Musculoskeletal Trauma Surgery

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