Creating Waves of Awareness
Expectoration and Homoeopathy
© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma M.D. (Homoeopathy)
Dr. Swati Vishnoi B.H.M.S.
For well formatted and illustrated article, please see attached pdf..
Different Sputum Colors. 2
Clear, White, Gray Sputum.. 2
Yellow Sputum.. 2
Green Sputum.. 2
Brown and Black Sputum.. 3
Red, Pink and Rust-Colored Sputum.. 3
Types of sputum.. 3
Some common diseases with phlegm.. 4
Acute Diseases with Phlegm.. 4
Acute bronchitis. 4
Influenza or flu including swine flu. 5
Chronic Diseases with Phlegm.. 5
Chronic bronchitis. 5
Lung cancer. 5
Phlegm in Small Children. 5
Acute viral infections. 5
Cystic fibrosis. 5
Other Causes of Mucus in the Throat. 5
Homoeopathic Treatment. 6
Sputa, Phlegm, Sputum, Expectoration
Expectoration can be defined as to eject or expel matter, as phlegm, from the throat or lungs by coughing or hawking and spitting, produced typically as a result of infection or other disease and often examined microscopically to aid medical diagnosis.
Mucus is produced in the mucosa of bronchi and trachea. It may originate from the nose of mouth (catarrh) or from lower down the respiratory tract (sputum, phlegm). Rarely, it may emanate from the upper esophagus. It is expectorated as phlegm. Phlegm appears as thick, jelly-like fluid of various colors and consistency, depending on the cause. It is composed of water, saliva and glycoproteins secreted by mucous glands. It also contains other components including microorganisms, whole cells, debris and dust even if there is no respiratory disease present.
The color of sputum depends on its composition. Clear phlegm means there is no pus or blood in it. Clear yellow or green phlegm is mucus mixed with pus. Rusty or brown phlegm may be due to smoking, air pollution, blood or infection. Blood in phlegm may appear as red streaks. Pink phlegm may be from asthma. Frothy phlegm originates from the lungs. Its common shades are-
Clear sputum is considered as normal, however, there are many conditions that may cause excessive sputum production. A profuse amount of clear sputum should therefore be considered as abnormal.
Yellow colored sputum is due to the presence of white blood cells, predominantly neutrophils and eosinophils, often present in chronic inflammation, allergic and infectious causes. With infections, it is yellow due to the presence of live neutrophils. With allergic conditions, particularly airway hypersensitivity, the yellowish sputum is due to the presence of eosinophils.
It is seen in chronic infection. Green color is a result of the breakdown of neutrophils and the release of verdoperoxidase, a peroxidase, occurring in leukocytes, that contains a greenish ferriheme; responsible for the peroxidase activity of pus and myeloperoxidase, a green hemoprotein in neutrophils and monocytes that catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and halide ions to form cytotoxic acids and other intermediates; which play a role in the oxygen-dependent killing of tumor cells and microorganisms. It may also be seen in long standing non-infectious inflammatory conditions. With infections, the green sputum is more purulent due to large amounts of pus while in non-infectious inflammatory conditions, the green sputum is more mucoid due to large amounts of mucus. (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis)
Brown or black sputum is an indication of the breakdown of red blood cells thereby releasing hemosiderin from hemoglobin. Certain organic and non-organic dusts may also cause a brown to black discoloration of the sputum.
Red sputum is usually an indication of whole blood that is more profuse than bleeding in pink colored sputum. It may completely discolor the mucus or appear as streaks or spots. Pink sputum is also a sign of bleeding but usually of smaller quantities that may stain or streak the sputum. Rust colored sputum is also due to the bleeding although the clotting process may have started and the red blood cells may have broken down.
Clear sputum is called normal that is slightly sticky and a bit viscous. It is produced and secreted in moderate amounts to moisten the respiratory tract and trap dust and microorganisms and lubricate the mouth and help in chewing, swallowing by mucous part and digestion by saliva part of phlegm.
However, in certain conditions, particularly related to irritation of the respiratory tract, the amount of sputum may become excessive. In these pathological cases, the color, texture and even odor of the sputum may change. These variations may give an indication of the possible cause. The sputum may be-
Normal, clear sputum is a serous discharge.
Large amounts of clear, frothy or pink sputum is of a similar consistency as normal sputum may be a sign of pulmonary edema (Psora). If it is extremely profuse and chronic, it may be due to lung cancer (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis).
Frothy sputum is caused by surfactant in the lung alveoli which reduces the surface tension of the sputum. It indicates that the sputum had contact with the lung alveoli or originated from this site (Psora/ Sycosis).
Mucoid, mucopurulent or purulent sputum is thicker and often stickier than normal sputum. This is due to the greater mucus production together with pus in the purulent types (Psora/ Syphilis).
Apart from the consistency, the color of purulent sputum may vary from white or gray to yellow, green, rust-colored or brown. It may also have a pink tinge (blood streaked) which may be due to a small quantity of blood (Psora/ Syphilis).
Mucoid sputum is a sign of non-infectious airway disease like chronic bronchitis (COPD) and asthma or may occur in the early stages of infection. Mucopurulent sputum is an indication of infection of the respiratory tract, particularly of the bronchi or lungs – acute bronchitis and pneumonia (Psora/ Sycosis).
Sputum may be blood stained where the normal sticky or mucopurulent thick consistency becomes thinner due to the presence of varying amounts of blood.
In severe cases involving hemoptysis, the consistency of the sputum may be the same viscosity as blood and little or no sputum may be visible. Blood stained sputum may be due to tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, pulmonary embolism or lung cancer (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis).
Pink to red or rust colored mucus is a sign of blood within the mucus and is usually associated with a severe infection or inflammatory response (Psora/ Sycosis).
Phlegm may be produced in the following acute diseases-
It is often preceded by a common cold. Itchy throat, coughing up clear phlegm and moderate chest pain during coughing are main symptoms, which usually resolve within two weeks. There is usually no or only moderate fever (Psora).
It can present with clear phlegm, high fever, runny nose, sore throat, headache and muscular pains. In bacterial pneumonia, coughing up yellow or green frothy phlegm, high fever and rapid breathing are main symptoms. In viral pneumonia, dry cough is characteristic (Psora).
In severe bronchitis, phlegm may obstruct the bronchi, resulting in hypoxemia, reflected in cyanosis.
In TB, yellow or green phlegm, often with blood, may be coughed up. Low grade fever, coughing, low appetite and generally feeling ill are main symptoms that usually lasts over three weeks (Psora/ Syphilis).
It is an allergic inflammation of the bronchi, a small amount of clear or pink phlegm may be produced and coughed up along with difficult breathing (Psora/ Sycosis).
Certain types of lung cancer produce mucus. Chest pain, coughing up blood or yellow phlegm, low appetite and losing weight are main but late symptoms (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis).
The chest cold or influenza are main causes of coughing up phlegm in small children (Psora).
It is a rare genetic disease, and produces cough with thick yellow or green phlegm, with blocked nose, diarrhoea, and respiratory infections shortly after birth as well as later in life (Syphilis).
Mucus produced in the nose or paranasal sinuses and dripped down the throat is informally called post nasal drip or catarrh.
Bacterial infection of tonsils or epiglottis usually causes high fever, strong pain in the throat, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and white-yellow pus that covers tonsils and the throat walls.
CHEST - INFLAMMATION - Lungs - congestion of lungs, rust colored, offensive sputum Sang. verat-v.
Constitutions - ELDERLY, constitutions - coughs, in elderly - violent winter, with spasmodic turns at night, and copious light-colored mucous sputa Kreos.
COUGH - Expectoration - blood - light colored, bright, pale or watery am-c. ant-t. ARN. ars. BELL. borx. Bry. Calc. canth. carb-an. Carb-v. chin. dig. Dros. DULC. Ferr. graph. HYOS. Ip. Kali-n. kreos. Laur. LED. mag-m. Merc. nat-c. nux-m. ph-ac. PHOS. puls. RHUS-T. Sabad. SABIN. SEC. sel. sep. sil. stram. stront-c. sulph. Zinc.
COUGH - Expectoration - blood - offensive, of bad color bell. bry. carb-an. CARB-V. caust. cham. croc. ign. kali-c. kreos. merc. phos. plat. sabad. sec. sil. STANN.
COUGH - Expectoration - reddish, rust colored acon. BRY. carb-v. PHOS. Rhus-t. sang. SQUIL.
EXPECTORATION - ASH-COLORED clots; round arund.
EXPECTORATION - BLOODY - liver-colored puls.
EXPECTORATION - BLOODY, spitting of blood - liver colored puls.
EXPECTORATION - BRICK DUST color bry. Phos. rhus-t.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - ash colored spots arund.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - black - blackish grains, with chin.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - black - day and night lyc.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - black - lumps in center arn. ox-ac.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - black - menses, with vicarious DIG.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - black – yellow hydr-ac.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – black arn. aster. bell. CHIN. cur. dig. ELAPS hydr-ac. KALI-BI. kali-c. led. LYC. NUX-V. ox-ac. phos. puls.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - blue and white alternately arund.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - bluish - alternating with white arund.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - bluish – gray coc-c.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - bluish - night, in bed sulph.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – bluish am-c. ambr. arund. brom. coc-c. Dig. Kali-bi. Kali-c. nat-ar. nux-v. plb. sulph.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - brick dust bry. PHOS. rhus-t.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - brownish - chocolate milk, like hura
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - brownish – frothy carb-an.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - brownish – lumps agar. phos. THUJ.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - brownish – morning agar.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - brownish - ten am., while sitting mag-c.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - brownish – yellow lyc.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – brownish agar. ARS. arum-i. bamb-a. bism. BRY. CALC. caps. CARB-AN. CARB-V. con. hura hyos. lyc. mag-c. nit-ac. PHOS. puls. rhus-t. SIL. spect. thuj.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - cream, like - yellowish white ambr.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - cream, like adam. ambr. bals-p. haliae-lc.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - cream, like ambr. bals-p.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - dark – morning naja
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – dark aq-pet. ARS. bism. CARB-AN. cench. cupr. hydrog. kali-bi. kurch. med. naja nux-m. oena. sul-ac. sul-i.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – dark Ars. bism. Carb-an. cench. cupr. hydrog. kali-bi. med. naja nux-m. oena. sul-i.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - dirty-looking calc. nit-ac.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - grayish – evening lyc.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - grayish – morning arg-met. lyc. nat-ar.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - grayish - rising, after phos.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – grayish alumin-sil. am-p. AMBR. anac. ant-s-aur. ARG-MET. Ars. arum-t. bac. benz-ac. bufo cain. calc-i. calc-p. Calc. calen. cann-s. carb-an. Carb-v. chel. chin. Cina coc-c. cop. cortiso. cur. dig. dros. dulc. eupi. ferr-act. ferr-i. ham. iod. Kali-bi. kali-c. Kali-i. kali-m. kali-s. kalm. Kreos. lac-ac. lach. LYC. mag-m. mang. med. merc-c. nat-ar. nat-c. nat-m. Nat-s. Nux-v. Par. petr. Phos. psil. psor. Puls. rhus-t. Seneg. Sep. sol-t-ae. spong. STANN. sulph. syph. tab. tep. Thuj. visc.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - greenish - evening - lying down, while PSOR.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - greenish – evening psor. sol
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - greenish - evening, lying down, while Psor.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - greenish - morning - seven am. - ten am. sil.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - greenish - morning - waking, on ferr. Psor.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - greenish – morning ars. crot-c. Ferr. Lyc. mang. nat-m. Nit-ac. Par. Psor. Sil. Stann.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - greenish – yellow agav-t. ars-i. CALC-SIL. carb-v. cassia-f. cub. kali-bi. KREOS. LYC. mang. MERC-I-F. NIT-AC. OL-J. PSOR. puls. stann. SYPH. taosc.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - greenish – yellow ars-i. Calc-sil. carb-v. cub. kali-bi. Kreos. Lyc. mang. Merc-i-f. Nit-ac. Ol-j. Psor. puls. stann. Syph.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – greenish ail. am-p. anan. Arg-met. Arn. ars-i. Ars. arum-t. asaf. atra-r. aur-s. aur. bals-p. bamb-a. benz-ac. blatta-o. borx. bov. bry. bufo cain. calc-i. Calc-s. CALC-SIL. Calc. calen. Cann-s. Carb-an. CARB-V. CARBN-S. choc. cob-n. coc-c. colch. Coloc. Cop. Crot-c. cub. cur. dig. dros. Dulc. eupi. ferr-act. Ferr-ar. ferr-i. Ferr-p. Ferr. grin. ham. hyos. iod. kali-ar. Kali-bi. kali-c. KALI-I. kali-p. Kali-s. kali-sil. kreos. led. LYC. mag-c. Mang. med. Merc-f. Merc-i-f. MERC. Nat-c. nat-m. nat-p. NAT-S. nat-sil. nit-ac. nux-v. oena. ol-j. ox-ac. PAR. Petr. PHOS. plb. psil. PSOR. PULS. raph. rhus-t. Sep. Sil. STANN. Sul-i. SULPH. syph. thuj. Tub. x-ray Zinc-phic. zinc.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - liver-colored graph. lyc. puls. sep. stann.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - pale - oppression at pit of stomach, after KALI-BI.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – pale kali-bi. lycps-v. neon
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – pinkish carbn-h.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - rusty - menses, in vicarious Dig.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – rusty Acon. arn. Ars. atro-pur. BRY. canth. carb-v. dig. ferr-p. LYC. Phos. pyrog. Rhus-t. Sang. Squil.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - slate colored kali-bi. nat-ar.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white - air, in open sacch-a. sep.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white - albuminous - night, after cough, in bed sulph.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white – albuminous Agar. alum. ALUMN. am-c. am-m. ant-t. Apis ARG-MET. arn. Ars. asaf. Bar-c. borx. bov. bry. calc-s. Caust. chin. COC-C. coca cur. eucal. Ferr. hydrog. ip. Kali-bi. kali-m. Laur. Med. meph. Mez. NAT-M. Nat-s. petr. Ph-ac. PHOS. Sel. SENEG. Sil. squil. Stann. sulph.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white – daytime Arg-met. Stann.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white - drinks, warm, agg. term-a.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white - eating, after sil.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white – evening Arg-n. calc-s. crot-t.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white - morning - waking, after carb-v.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white – morning Agar. Alumn. carb-v. KALI-BI. Nat-m. Phos. puls. Sulph.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white – night sep.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white – opaque chinin-s. KALI-CHL.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - white – thick kali-m. nat-m.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – white Acon. Agar. ail. alum. alumin-p. alumin-sil. Alumn. Am-br. am-c. am-m. ambr. ant-t. Apis apoc. Arg-met. arg-n. arn. Ars. arum-d. arum-t. arund. asaf. aur-m. bac. bamb-a. bar-c. bell. Borx. bov. brom. bry. cadm-met. caj. calc-s. calc-sil. Calc. caps. carb-ac. carb-an. Carb-v. Caust. cench. chin. chinin-ar. chinin-s. chlor. cina cob. Coc-c. coca cop. crot-t. cupr. cur. dulc. eucal. ferr-ar. ferr-i. ferr-p. ferr. fl-ac. graph. hydr. hydrog. hyper. Iod. ip. Kali-bi. KALI-CHL. kali-i. kali-m. kali-p. kali-s. Kreos. Lac-c. laur. LYC. manc. Med. meph. merc-i-f. mez. naja NAT-M. nat-s. nicc-met. oena. ol-j. onos. ox-ac. oxyg. par. petr. ph-ac. PHOS. phys. pic-ac. puls-n. Puls. raph. rhus-t. rumx. sacch-a. sang. Sel. senec. SENEG. SEP. sil. Spong. Squil. Stann. Sulph. syph. tarent-c. tarent. tell. thuj.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow – afternoon anac. calc-s.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - air, in cold sacch-a.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow – brown sep.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow – evening dig.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow – forenoon staph.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - lemon colored kali-c. lyc. phos. puls.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - morning - seven am. - ten am. sil.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - morning - waking, on aur.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow – morning ail. aur. bamb-a. Calc-p. Calc. cench. Kali-bi. lyc. mag-c. mang. Ph-ac. Phos. PULS. Sil. STANN. tarent. tub.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow – night lyc. staph.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - noon - three pm. calc-s.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - orange colored hydrog. Kali-c. phos. puls.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow – painful cassia-s.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - pressure on trachea amel. tamrnd.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - saffron colored aq-pet.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - tea, hot, amel. tamrnd.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow - white – morning lyc.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR - yellow – white CARB-AN. CARB-V. LYC. mangi. ph-ac. PHOS. sep. stront-c. SULPH.
EXPECTORATION - COLOR – yellow Acon. ail. aloe alum. alumin-p. Alumin-sil. alumn. am-c. Am-m. ambr. ammc. anac. anan. Ang. ant-c. apoc. arg-met. Arg-n. Ars-i. Ars-s-f. Ars. arum-d. arum-m. arum-t. asc-t. astac. aur-ar. aur-i. aur-m. aur-s. aur. Bad. bals-p. bamb-a. bar-c. bar-i. bar-m. bar-s. bell. bism. blatta-o. borx. bov. brom. Bry. bufo Cact. cadm-met. calc-i. CALC-P. CALC-S. calc-sil. CALC. cann-s. Canth. carb-an. Carb-v. carbn-s. caust. cench. cham. chlol. cic. cist. Coc-c. coca coloc. con. cop. cub. cupr. cur. daph. dig. Dros. eug. eupi. ferr-ar. ferr-i. Ferr-p. ferr. graph. grin. ham. hed. HEP. hura hydr-ac. HYDR. hydrog. Ign. iod. ip. just. kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-c. Kali-chl. Kali-i. Kali-p. Kali-s. kali-sil. Kreos. lac-ac. lach. lat-m. linu-c. LYC. mag-c. mag-m. mang. med. merc-f. Merc-i-f. Merc. mez. mur-ac. mygal. Nat-ar. Nat-c. nat-m. Nat-p. nat-s. nat-sil. Nit-ac. nux-v. oena. Ol-j. op. ox-ac. oxyg. ozone par. Petr. Ph-ac. PHOS. phyt. plb. Psor. PULS. pyrog. rumx. Ruta sabad. sabin. sacch-a. samb. sang. sangin-n. Sanic. sel. senec. seneg. SEP. SIL. sol-ni. spig. Spong. STANN. Staph. sul-ac. Sul-i. Sulph. syph. tarent. Thuj. TUB. verat. visc. zinc-phic. Zinc.
Expectoration - colour – EXPECTORATION AM-C. ARG-MET. ARN. ARS. BRY. CALC. Carb-an. CARB-V. CHIN. Dig. FERR. Kali-bi. KALI-C. KALI-I. Kali-s. Kreos. LYC. Med. MERC. NAT-AR. NAT-M. NAT-S. NIT-AC. Nux-v. PHOS. PULS. Rhus-t. SEP. SIL. STANN. SULPH. Thuj.
EXPECTORATION - LIVER-COLORED graph. lyc. puls. sep. stann.
EXPECTORATION - LUMPY - smoke-colored lumps, streaked with blood kali-c.
EXPECTORATION - MILKY am-c. Ars. aur. carb-v. ferr. KALI-CHL. phos. plb. puls. Sep. Sil. Sulph. zinc.
EXPECTORATION - SLATE-COLORED kali-bi. nat-ar.
EXPECTORATION - YELLOW - lemon-colored kali-c. lyc. melal-alt. petr-ra. phos. puls.
EXPECTORATION - YELLOW - orange-colored hydrog. Kali-c. petr-ra. phos. puls.
Lungs - EXPECTORATION, lungs, discharges - ash, colored, spots arund.
Lungs - EXPECTORATION, lungs, discharges - bloody, spitting of blood - liver colored puls.
Lungs - EXPECTORATION, lungs, discharges - brick, dust, color bry. Phos. rhus-t.
Lungs - EXPECTORATION, lungs, discharges - liver, colored like graph. lyc. puls. sep. stann.
Lungs - EXPECTORATION, lungs, discharges - lumpy - smoke-colored lumps, streaked with blood kali-c.
Lungs - EXPECTORATION, lungs, discharges - slate, colored kali-bi. nat-act.
Lungs - EXPECTORATION, lungs, discharges - yellow - orange colored hydrog. Kali-c. phos. puls.
Lungs - PNEUMONIA, infection, inflammation, lungs - rust, colored, offensive sputum Sang. verat-v.
Chapter 19. Laboratory > Diagnoses Without a Lab; Improvised Medicine: Providing Care in Extreme Environments
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease > INTRODUCTION; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine ... alveoli; chronic bronchitis, a clinically defined condition with chronic cough and phlegm; and small airways disease, a condition in which small bronchioles are narrowed. COPD is present only if chronic airflow obstruction occurs; chronic bronchitis without chronic airflow obstruction...
Infectious Diseases: Syndromes and Etiologies > Lower Respiratory Tract Infection; Sherris Medical Microbiology, 6e
Lung Abscess > CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine ... with putrid lung abscesses may report discolored phlegm and foul-tasting or foul-smelling sputum. Patients with lung abscesses due to non-anaerobic organisms, such as S. aureus, may present with a more fulminant course characterized by high fevers and rapid progression. Findings on physical examination...
Mycobacteria > Laboratory Diagnosis; Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 13e
Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease > World Trade Center Disaster; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine ... has revealed a wide variety of potentially toxic constituents, although much of the dust was pulverized cement. Possibly because of the high alkalinity of WTC dust, significant cough, wheeze, and phlegm production occurred among firefighters and cleanup crews. New cough and wheeze syndromes also...
Respiratory Function and Pulmonary Diagnostic Procedures > Sputum Exam; Harrison's Manual of Medicine, 18e
Respiratory Tract & Mediastinum > B. Laboratory Findings and Imaging Studies; CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics, 22e
Streptococci and Enterococci > BACTERIOLOGY; Sherris Medical Microbiology, 6e
The Chest: Chest Wall, Pulmonary, and Cardiovascular Systems; The Breasts > Sputum Signs; DeGowin’s Diagnostic Examination, 10e