Creating Waves of Awareness
Collagen disorders and Homoeopathy
© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma MD (Homoeopathy)
Dr. Swati Vishnoi BHMS
Dr. Preetika Lakhera BHMS
For well formatted and illustrated article, please see attached file...
Primary structure. 3
Sec, Tertiary & Quaternary Structure. 3
Collagen crimping. 4
Synthesis of collagen. 5
In Nucleus. 5
In Cytoplasm.. 5
Regulation of Synthesis. 5
Sequence of intracellular collagen biosynthesis. 5
Sequence of extracellular collagen biosynthesis. 5
Gene Expression. 5
Regulation of Collagen Biosynthesis. 6
Gene transcription. 6
Post translational modification. 6
Degradation of Collagen. 6
Endogenous collagen. 6
Exogenous collagen. 7
Causes of variations in collagen types. 7
Fibrils forming collagens. 7
Fibril associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACIT) 7
All other non fibrillar collagens. 8
Collagen disorders. 9
High sugar consumption. 9
Autoimmune disorders. 9
Lupus Erythematosus. 9
Polyarteritis nodosa. 10
Epidermolysis bullosa. 10
Rheumatoid arthritis. 10
Crohn`s disease. 11
WegEner`s granulomatosis. 11
Churg-Strauss syndrome. 11
Microscopic polyangiitis. 11
Osteogenesis imperfecta. 12
Ehler-Danlos Syndrome. 12
Alport syndrome. 12
Knobloch syndrome. 12
Medical uses of collagen. 13
Skin fillers. 13
Wound dressing. 13
Guided tissue regeneration. 13
Vascular prosthetics. 13
Treatment of osteoarthritis. 14
Skin revitalization. 14
Homoeopathic remedies for collagen disorders. 14
Collagen- Greek "kolla," means glue, “gen” means to produce.
Collagen is the most abundant, hard, insoluble and fibrous protein that makes up one-third of the protein in the human body, found in the bones, muscles, skin and tendons, forming a framework to provide strength and structure thus holding the whole body together.
As a group of proteins, collagens contain a number of characteristic features that distinguish them from other matrix molecules. All collagens are composed of 3 polypeptide alpha chains coiled around each other to form the tripe helix configuration. The individual polypeptide chains of collagen each contain approximately 1000 amino acid residues.
Each polypeptide chain in type I collagen contains 1056 amino acids residues. 90% of them are in the form of repeating (Glycine-proline-hydroxyproline pattern). These 2 amino acids together with glycine at every 3rd residue, gives the featured conformation to collagen molecules.
Collagen is a rod-shaped molecule, about 3,000 Å long and only 15 Å thick. Its three helically intertwined chains may have different sequences, but each has about 1,000 amino acid residues. Collagen fibrils are made up of collagen molecules aligned in a staggered fashion and cross linked for strength. The specific alignment and degree of cross-linking vary with the tissue. Collagen consists of three chains that intertwine to form a triple helix (Collagen contains about 1000 amino acids, one third of which are glycine. In the majority of collagens, the molecules are packed together to form very similar long thin fibrils.
Collagen involves a family of genetically distinct molecules, all of which have a unique triple helix configuration of three polypeptide subunits known as alpha-chains.
Each chain contains around 1,000 amino acids, and usually has an amino acid sequence comprising of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline.
The complex 3D arrangement of fibers also means that some bundles would always be placed in tension, irrespective of the direction of an applied force. This enables local areas of the PDL to resist compressive forces.
Collagenous tissues exhibit a calculable periodicity of structure of variable scale, the waveform that describes this periodicity has been referred to as crimp. In the polarizing microscope crimping can be seen by regular banding of dark lines across the bundles.
The polypeptide chains of preprocollagen are synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and the signal (pre) sequence is cleaved. Proline and lysine residues are hydroxylated by a reaction that requires O2 and vitamin C. Galactose and glucose are added to hydroxylysine residues. The triple helix forms, and procollagen is secreted from the cell and cleaved to form collagen. Cross-links are produced. The side chains of lysine and hydroxylysine residues are oxidized to form aldehydes, which can undergo aldol condensation or form Schiff bases with the amino groups of lysine residues. The entire process of collagen synthesis can be best understood under the following stages-
Translational and post translational events or intracellular steps in collagen synthesis procollagen formation
Extracellular collagen biosynthetic events
By different genes and factors
Collagen genes are large and range in size from 5kb for (COL1A1) TO 130 kb for COL1A31. More than 30 genes have been described for collagen types I to type XIX.
Although differences exist among various collagen genes, those coding for “Fibril forming collagens” have similar exon arrangement. These genes have 42 axons for the major triple helical region. Most of these exons are composed of 54 bp (or multiple) & start with an intact codon for glycine.
Type 1 - COL1A1
Type 2 - COL2A1
Type 3 - COL3A1
Type 5- COL4A1 - COL4A6
Collagen biosynthesis is tightly regulated during normal development & homeostasis in a cell & tissue specific manner.
Many genetically, chemically, and immunologically distinct types of collagen have been identified. At least 16 types of collagen are identified but 80-90% of collagens in the body belong to types I, II and III. The collagens in the human body are strong and flexible. Type I collagen fibrils are particularly tensile, and are stronger than steel.
Collagen synthesized by the body plays numerous important roles in health. Breakdown and depletion of the body's natural collagen is associated with a number of health problems (Psora/ Syphilis).
It is also called supplemental collagen and is used for medical and cosmetic purposes, including to help with healing and repair of the body's tissues.
Collagens are divided roughly into 3 groups based on their abilities to form fibrils-
This group of collagens forms banded fibrils. Their triple helical domain contains an uninterrupted stretch of 338 to 343 Glycine – proline – hydroxyproline triplets in each α chain and the molecule measures 15 x 3000 Ao (Psora/ Syphilis). This group includes-
This group of collagens consists of proteins in which collagenous domains are interrupted by non-collagenous sequences. These are associated with the surface of fibril forming collagens (Psora/ Sycosis).
It includes type IX, type XII, type XIV and perhaps type XVI also. The former three are unique in containing glycosaminoglycan components covalently linked to the protein molecule.
These form this third group which includes-
In addition to the above collagen groups at least 10 non collagenous proteins incorporating short triple helical collagen domains have been described. These proteins are not considered true collagens because they do not form a part of the extracellular matrix. This group of collagen domain containing non matrix protein molecules includes (10 Non Collagenous Proteins) (Psora)-
Before looking for collagen disorders, we must learn about the factors affecting collagen tissue. There are a number of factors that can deplete the levels of collagen found within the body-
High sugar diet increases the rate of glycation, a process whereby sugar in the blood attaches to proteins to form new molecules called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs damage adjacent proteins and can make collagen dry, brittle, and weak.
Alkaloids present in tobacco smoke damage both collagen and elastin in the skin. Nicotine also narrows the blood vessels in the outer layers of the skin, which compromises the transport of nutrients and oxygen to the skin, negotiating skin health.
Ultraviolet rays in sunlight cause collagen to break down at an increased rate, damaging collagen fibers and inducing the accumulation of abnormal elastin. Abnormal elastin leads to the production of an enzyme that can also break down collagen, leading to the formation of solar scars.
Some autoimmune disorders cause antibodies to target collagen. Mutations to the genes responsible for the coding of collagen alpha-chains can affect the extracellular matrix, leading to a decrease in the amount of collagen secreted, or to the secretion of dysfunctional mutant collagen. This may lead to a number of disorders.
Collagen levels deplete naturally over time due to intrinsic aging. However, by taking precautionary measures, it is possible to reduce extrinsic aging and protect collagen, keeping the skin, bones, muscles and joints healthy for longer.
Some common collagen disorders are given below-
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue and causes inflammation, necrosis and degeneration of collagen. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs. (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis)
Remedies- Carb-an. sanic. SEP. syph. tril-p.
Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by hardening (sclero) of the skin (derma). Symptoms include tightening of the skin, joint pain, exaggerated response to cold (Raynaud's disease) and heartburn. (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis)
Remedies- alum. Ant-c. arg-n. ars. berb-a. brass-n-o. Bry. caust. Crot-t. echi. Elae. Hydr. kali-c. lyc. petr. Phos. rad-br. ran-b. rhus-r. sarcol-ac. sars. sep. sil. still. sulph. syc. thiosin. thyr. x-ray
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare connective tissue disease that results in vasculitis causing injury to organ systems. It is a systemic vasculitis characterized by necrotizing inflammatory lesions that affect medium-sized and small muscular arteries, preferentially at vessel bifurcations, resulting in microaneurysm formation, aneurysmal rupture with hemorrhage, thrombosis, and, consequently, organ ischemia or infarction. (Psora/ Syphilis)
Remedies- acon. agar. All-c. aml-ns. ant-c. Ant-t. apis arist-cl. ARN. Ars-i. ARS. aur. Bapt. BAR-C. Bar-m. bell-p-sp. bell-p. BELL. both. BRY. bufo cact. calc-ar. Calc-f. calc-p. CALC. canth. carb-an. CARB-V. carbn-s. card-m. Cham. Chin. chlam-tr. chlorpr. conv. Crot-h. Cupr. eberth. echi. eucal. Ferr-p. ferr. Fl-ac. gels. glon. graph. guaj. Ham. hecla hell. hep. Hippoz. hir. hist. Hyos. ign. influ. ins. Iod. Kali-c. kali-chl. Kali-i. kali-m. kalm. kreos. LACH. Led. lith-c. Lyc. Lycps-v. mag-c. mag-f. magn-gr. merc-cy. merc-i-r. merc. morg-p. morph. Mur-ac. Nat-i. nat-m. Nat-s. nux-v. parathyr. Phos. plb-xyz. plb. prot. PULS. ran-b. ran-s. rhod. RHUS-T. ruta sacch. sang. sec. Sep. Sil. spig. Spong. streptoc. stront-br. stront-c. sul-ac. sulfa. Sulph. syph. thiop. Thuj. tril-p. tub. Verat-v. VERAT. vip-a. VIP. zinc.
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a genetic skin disorder characterized clinically by blister formation from mechanical trauma. (Psora/ Sycosis)
Remedies- Acon. agn. ail. all-c. alum-sil. alum. am-c. ambr. Anac. ANT-C. Apis arist-cl. Arn. ars-s-f. ars-s-r. Ars. Asaf. aur-ar. aur-s. Aur. bad. Bar-c. Bar-m. bell-p. bell. beryl. Borx. bov. Brom. bry. Bufo Calc. camph. cann-s. Canth. carb-an. carbn-s. CAUST. CHAM. chel. chin. chir-fl. chlol. cina Clem. cocc. colch. com. con. cortico. croc. crot-h. crot-t. Dulc. dys. euph. falco-pe. Gels. graph. HEP. heroin. hyos. Kali-ar. kali-bi. Kali-c. kali-i. Kali-s. kali-sil. kreos. lach. loxo-lae. loxo-recl. lyc. m-arct. Mag-c. manc. mand. mang. med. merc-c. Merc. mez. moni. morb. myris. nat-ar. Nat-c. nat-m. nat-p. nat-s. Nit-ac. ped. Petr. ph-ac. phos. physala-p. plb-i. Plb. plut-n. podo. positr. prim-o. prot. psor. PULS. Ran-b. Ran-s. RHUS-T. rhus-v. ruta sec. sedi. sep. SIL. spiros-af. Staph. sulph. syc. syph. tarent-c. urt-u. verat. vip. x-ray zinc.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common type of connective tissue disorder, causing chronic autoimmune arthritis. It is triggered by a faulty immune system and affects the wrist and small joints of the hand, including the knuckles and the middle joints of the fingers. In this systemic disorder, immune cells attack and inflame the membrane around joints. It also can affect the heart, lungs, and eyes. It affects many more women than men. (Psora/ Sycosis).
Remedies- abrom-a. abrot. Acon. act-sp. aesc. agar. agn. all-c. am-be. am-c. am-caust. ant-c. Ant-t. Apis apoc. arg-met. Arn. ars. ars-i. Ars-s-f. asc-c. asc-t. AUR. aur-m. bacls-10. bacls-7. bar-act. Bell. Benz-ac. berb. BRY. Cact. caj. Calc. CALC-P. Calc-s. camph. cann-s. carbn-s. carc. Casc. caul. CAUST. cedr. Cham. Chel. Chim. chin. Chinin-s. chlf. Cimic. clem. Cocc. COLCH. Colchin. Coloc. corv-cor. dig. dios. dros. Dulc. Eup-per. euphr. fago. Ferr. ferr-i. FERR-P. ferr-pic. fic-m. flav. FORM. form-ac. franc. gaul. gels. germ-met. gins. gonotox. Guaj. ham. Hep. hymos. ign. indg. IOD. KALI-BI. kali-c. Kali-chl. Kali-i. kali-m. kali-p. Kali-s. Kalm. kreos. Lac-ac. Lac-c. Lach. lap-la. Led. lith-be. LYC. macro. mag-p. mand. Mang. meli. Merc. meth-sal. mez. morg. nat-lac. Nat-m. nat-p. nat-pyru. Nat-s. nat-sal. Nux-v. nyct. ol-j. Olib-sac. ox-ac. petr. Phos. Phyt. pic-ac. pin-s. Prop. prot. psor. Puls. Rad-met. ran-b. Rham-cal. rheum Rhod. RHUS-T. rumx. Ruta sabin. Sal-ac. salol. Sang. sec. senec. sep. SPIG. spong. Staph. Stel. stict. still. stront-c. stry. sul-i. Sulph. syph. Ter. teucr. thuj. til. vac. verat. Verat-v. Viol-o. viol-t.
Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), causing inflammation of the lining of digestive tract, leading to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss and malnutrition. It is characterized by inflammation, muscle layer overgrowth, and collagenous fibrosis of the intestinal tract. (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis)
Remedies- Acet-ac. ACON. aloe alumn. ant-c. ANT-T. APIS Arg-n. arist-cl. Arn. ars-i. ARS. asc-c. atro. aur. Bapt. BELL. berb. brom. BRY. bufo but-ac. Cact. cadm-s. Calad. calc-sil. Calc. Canth. caps. Carb-v. Card-m. Cham. chel. Chin. cic. cocc. coff. COLCH. coli. coll. Coloc. Crot-c. Crot-h. cupr. cyt-l. Dios. eberth. Echi. enteroc. euph. ferr-ar. ferr-p. Ferr. gamb. gast. Gels. gins. graph. guaj. hep. Hydr. HYOS. influ. iod. Ip. iris-t. kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-c. Kali-chl. kali-i. kali-m. Kali-n. kali-p. lac-d. LACH. lat-m. LAUR. levist. LYC. mag-s. malar. med. Merc-c. merc-d. MERC. Mez. nat-m. Nat-s. nit-ac. Nux-v. OP. Ox-ac. parathyr. PHOS. plb-xyz. Plb. Podo. Puls. pyrog. rham-cal. rham-cath. RHUS-T. ric. sabin. Samb. sang. santin. Sec. Sep. Sil. spong. squil. Stram. Sulph. syph. TER. THUJ. tub-d. tub-r. tub. uran-met. Uran-n. urt-u. verat-v. Verat. vip.
It is a form of vasculitis that affects the nose, lungs, kidneys and other organs. It is also called as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). (Psora/ Syphilis)
Remedies- acon. agar. All-c. aml-ns. ant-c. Ant-t. apis arist-cl. Arn. Ars. Bapt. bell-p-sp. bell-p. Bell. both. BRY. Bufo calc-ar. Calc-f. CALC. CARB-V. carbn-s. card-m. Cham. Chin. chlam-tr. chlorpr. Crot-h. eberth. echi. Ferr-p. ferr. Fl-ac. gels. glon. graph. Ham. hecla hep. Hippoz. hir. hist. Hyos. influ. ins. Iod. Kali-c. kali-chl. Kali-i. kali-m. kreos. LACH. Led. Lyc. Lycps-v. mag-c. mag-f. merc-cy. merc-i-r. merc. morg-p. Mur-ac. Nat-i. nat-m. Nat-s. nux-v. parathyr. Phos. prot. PULS. rhod. RHUS-T. sacch. sang. sec. sep. Sil. spig. streptoc. stront-br. stront-c. sul-ac. sulfa. Sulph. thiop. Thuj. tril-p. verat. vip-a. VIP. zinc.
It is a type of autoimmune vasculitis that affects cells in the blood vessels of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, skin, and nerves. (Psora/ Syphilis)
Remedies- acon. aml-ns. apis arn. Bell. bell-p. bell-p-sp. CARB-V. card-m. chlam-tr. ferr. Fl-ac. gels. glon. Ham. Hyos. influ. ins. Lach. lyc. nat-m. Phos. PULS. sacch. sang. sec. sep. sul-ac. sulph. Thuj. tril-p. vip. zinc.
Microscopic polyangiitis is an ill-defined autoimmune disease characterized by a systemic, pauci-immune, necrotizing, small-vessel vasculitis without clinical or pathological evidence of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. (Psora/ Sycosis)
Remedies- bell. caust. Cupr. Fl-ac. hyper. kali-br. lach. phos. sul-ac.
It is a disease characterized by inflammation and degeneration of the muscles. When the condition also affects the skin, it is called dermatomyositis. (Psora/ Syphilis)
Remedies- Arn. bell. Bry. cimic. ham. hep. kali-i. lat-m. merc. Mez. Rhus-t. streptoc. thuj. toxo-g.
Caused by a mutation in type 1 collagen, dominant autosomal disorder, results in weak bones and irregular connective tissue, can be mild or lethal, mild cases have lowered levels of collagen type 1 while severe cases have structural defects in collagen. (Psora/ Syphilis)
Chondrodysplasia puncta´ta is a heterogeneous group of bone dysplasias, the common characteristic of which is stippling of the epiphyses in infancy (Syphilis). The group includes a severe autosomal recessive form (rhizomelic dwarfism), an autosomal dominant form (Conradi-Hünermann syndrome), and a milder X-linked form. This skeletal disorder is caused by a mutation in type 2 collagen.
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) refer to a group of inherited disorders that affect collagen structure and function. Genetic abnormalities in the manufacturing of collagen within the body affect connective tissues, causing them to be abnormally weak (Psora/ Syphilis). Ten different types of this disorder which lead to deformities in connective tissue, some can be lethal that lead to the rupture of arteries, each syndrome is caused by a different mutation, for example type four of this disorder is caused by a mutation in collagen type 3.
Remedies- bar-c. bar-m. vanad.
It is a hereditary disease of the kidneys that primarily affects men, causing blood in the urine, hearing loss and eye problems. Eventually, kidney dialysis or transplant may be necessary. It can be passed on genetically, both an autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive disorder. (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis)
Remedies- ter. thuj. Viol-o.
It occurs when bones lose an excessive amount of their protein and mineral content, particularly calcium. It is not inherited genetically, brought on with age, associated with reduced levels of collagen in the skin and bones. (Psora/ Syphilis)
Remedies- arg-met. bacls-7. calc-f. cortico. cortiso. dys. fl-ac. morg-p. palo.
Knobloch syndrome (KS) is defined by vitreoretinal and macular degeneration, and occipital encephalocele and is caused by a mutation in the collagen XVIII gene. The patients present with protrusion of the brain tissue and degeneration of the retina, an individual with family members suffering from the disorder are at an increased risk. (Sycosis/ Syphilis)
Remedies- acon. agar. Ars. asaf. aur-s. aur. Bell. BRY. Cedr. cina Coloc. crot-h. dig. Dub. ferr-p. Gels. ham. Hep. iod. Ip. jab. Kali-chl. Kali-i. kali-m. kalm. lach. lith-c. Merc-c. Merc-d. merc-i-r. Merc. naphtin. Nux-v. p-benzq. phos. Phyt. Pilo. plb. Prun. psor. puls. Rhus-t. ruta santin. Sil. Spig. sulph. syph. tab. tell. Thuj. tub. verat-v. viol-o.
It results from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans. Symptoms include malaise, lethargy, skin changes with roughness, easy bruising and petechiae, gum disease, loosening of teeth, poor wound healing, and emotional changes. (Psora/ Causa occasionalis)
Remedies- acet-ac. agav-a. agn. all-s. aln. alum. alumn. Am-c. am-m. ambr. ant-c. aran. arg-met. Ars. ars-i. arum-m. aur. bell. borx. bov. brass. brass-n-o. bry. Calc. canth. caps. Carb-an. CARB-V. cary. caust. cetr. chin. chinin-s. cic. Cist. cit-ac. cit-l. cit-v. coca coch. con. Dulc. elat. Ferr-p. gali. graph. Ham. Hep. Iod. jug-r. Kali-c. kali-chl. Kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. kreos. lach. lyc. mag-m. MERC. MUR-AC. nat-hchls. Nat-m. Nit-ac. nit-m-ac. nux-m. NUX-V. petr. ph-ac. phos. plb. psor. rat. rhus-t. ruta sabin. sacch. sanic. sep. Sil. sin-n. sol-t-ae. stann. STAPH. sul-ac. Sulph. tart-ac. tep. Urin. zinc.
It is intended to increase collagen production, decrease its breakdown and controlling aging. The growth of collagen, elastin, and melanin can all be stimulated through laser therapy, involving intense wavelengths of light.
The nutrients that may support collagen formation include-
Collagen that is used medically can originate from human, bovine, porcine and ovine sources.
Collagen injections can be used in cosmetic procedures to improve the contours of aging skin.
Within wound healing, collagen attracts new skin cells to the wound site, promotes healing and provides a platform for the growth of new tissue.
Collagen-based membranes have been used in periodontal and implant therapy to promote the growth of specific types of cell.
Collagen tissue grafts from donors have been used in peripheral nerve regeneration and vascular prostheses, used in arterial reconstruction.
Collagen supplements or formulations may be beneficial in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Many products containing collagen, including creams and powders, claim to revitalize the skin.
acet-ac. am-caust. anan. arg-met. ars-i. ars. calen. carb-v. carc. cortiso. crot-h. cyclop. cyclosp. des-ac. germ-met. graph. kali-ar. lach. med. merc. mur-ac. nit-ac. penic. phos. plut-n. psor. rhus-t. saroth. stann. suis-chord-umb. sulph. syph. thuj. tub-r. tub. uncar-tom. urin.
Chapter 33. Diagnosis of Medical Renal Diseases > Renal Involvement in Collagen Diseases Smith and Tanagho's General Urology, 18e ... Although it may not be accurate to classify all of these disorders as collagen diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic angiitis, scleroderma, Wegener's granulomatosis, Henoch–Schönlein purpura, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura have been implicated...
Chapter 53. Epidermal and Epidermal–Dermal Adhesion > Collagen IV Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 8e ... Figure 53-6 Images of basement membrane molecules visualized by rotary shadowing. A. Collagen IV monomer and a dimer resulting from aggregation of C -terminal NC-1 domains. B. Collagen IV tetramer (“spider”) demonstrating the 7-S domain with the four protruding molecules...
Chapter 55. Nonatherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease > Collagen Vascular Disease Vasculitis Hurst's The Heart, 13e ... Collagen vascular diseases generally involve arthritis, myositis, carditis, dermatitis, and inflammatory vascular changes to varying degrees. 253 They include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid vasculitis, systemic sclerosis, and polymyositis. Rheumatoid vasculitis is discussed under...
Chapter 63. Collagens, Elastic Fibers, and Other Extracellular Matrix Proteins of the Dermis > Cutaneous Collagens Diseases Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 8e ... The term collagens disease implies that a clinical condition involves an abnormality in the structure, synthesis, or degradation of collagens. This term is frequently used to characterize a clinically heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases, including lupus erythematosus, scleroderma...
Chapter 63. Collagens, Elastic Fibers, and Other Extracellular Matrix Proteins of the Dermis > Genetic Heterogeneity of Collagens Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 8e.... 17 Although skin disorders associated with genetic mutations in type IV collagens have not been described, mutation in the COL4A1 gene has been identified in a family with autosomal dominant porencephaly and infantile hemiparesis, 22 and mutations in the COL4A5 gene result in Alport syndrome...
Connective Tissue > Collagen Junqueira's Basic Histology, 14e ... TABLE 5–4 Examples of clinical disorders resulting from defects in collagen synthesis. Disorder Defect Symptoms Ehlers-Danlos type IV Faulty transcription or translation of collagen type III Aortic and/or intestinal rupture Ehlers-Danlos type VI...
Depositional Diseases of the Lungs > Collagen Vascular Disease and Immune Complex−Associated Pulmonary Hemorrhage Fishman's Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 5e... of these disorders are consistently associated with pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE. Early diagnosis and treatment with corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs are associated with favorable outcomes, although relapse is not uncommon. ...
Hematologic Disorders > 2. Collagen Disorders CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics, 22e ... Mild to life-threatening bleeding occurs with some types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, the most common inherited collagen disorder. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is characterized by joint hypermobility, skin extensibility, and easy bruising. Coagulation abnormalities may sometimes be present, including...
Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue > OTHER COLLAGENS AND RELATED MOLECULES Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine ... The unique properties of the triple helix are used to define a family of at least 28 collagens that contain repetitive -Gly-X-Y- sequences and form triple helices of varying length and complexity. The proteins are heterogeneous both in structure and function, and many are the sites of mutations...
Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue > Structure and Biosynthesis of Fibrillar Collagens Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine ... FIGURE 427-1 Schematic summary of biosynthesis of fibrillar collagens. (Modified and reproduced with permission from J Myllyharju, KI Kivirikko: Trends in Genetics 20:33, 2004.) The tensile strength of collagen fibers derives primarily from the self-assembly of protein...
Platelet Morphology, Biochemistry, and Function > Collagen: GPVI and Integrin α 2 β 1 Williams Hematology, 9e... kinase in platelets, its role in platelet signaling is unclear, as mice lacking Src do not suffer from any obvious bleeding disorder. 1605 Syk, on the other hand, appears to play a critical role in collagen activation of platelets as platelets from mice lacking Syk do not aggregate or undergo...
Proteins: Higher Orders of Structure > Nutritional & Genetic Disorders Can Impair Collagen Maturation Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry, 30e ..., reflects a dietary deficiency of the copper required by lysyl oxidase, which catalyzes a key step in the formation of the covalent cross-links that strengthen collagen fibers. Genetic disorders of collagen biosynthesis include several forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, characterized by fragile bones...
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension > Collagen Vascular Diseases Fishman's Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 5e... obtained without confirmation by catheterization in patients with mixed connective tissue disease. Regardless of frequency, however, when it is present, PAH appears to be a significant cause of death in these patients. PAH occurs in numerous other rheumatologic disorders, including SjÖgren’s syndrome...
Pulmonary Vasculitis > Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Other Collagen Vascular Disorders Fishman's Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 5e ... in SLE varies widely, between 0% and 90%. Treatment consists of glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide. 39 The use of plasma exchange has been suggested, but its benefit remains unproved. Respiratory complications are very common in all other types of collagen vascular or connective tissue disorders...
The Extracellular Matrix > A Number of Genetic & Deficiency Diseases Result From Abnormalities in the Synthesis of Collagen Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry, 30e ... modifications. Diseases affecting bone (eg, osteogenesis imperfecta) and cartilage (eg, the chondrodysplasias) will be discussed later in this chapter. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (formerly called Cutis hyperelastica), comprises a group of inherited disorders whose principal clinical features...
The Extracellular Matrix > CHONDRODYSPLASIAS ARE CAUSED BY MUTATIONS IN GENES ENCODING TYPE II COLLAGEN & FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry, 30e.... Chondrodysplasias are a mixed group of hereditary disorders affecting cartilage. They are manifested by short-limbed dwarfism and numerous skeletal deformities. A number of them are due to a variety of mutations in the COL2A1 gene, leading to abnormal forms of type II collagen. One example is the Stickler...
Heal Yourself with Sunlight
Use Its Secret Medicinal Powers to Help Cure Cancer, Heart Disease, Hypertension, Diabetes, Arthritis, Infectious Diseases, and Much More.
In Heal Yourself with Sunlight, Andreas Moritz has provided scientific evidence that sunlight is essential for good health, and that a lack of sun exposure can be held responsible for many of today’s ailments. Sunlight is a nutrient, a medicine, a remedy, all at once. It is not some bottled compound you can find at a drug store alone. It is naturally available to everyone.
The dosage is under your control and your body easily tells you when you have had just about the right amount of it.
Unfortunately, even though sunlight is readily available all through the day, many people fail to profit from it. Read this book to learn how you can harness sunlight, nature’s most potent and curative powers, for maintaining good health. It is a misconception that the sun is the main culprit for causing skin cancer, certain cataracts leading to blindness, and aging.
Research has actually shown that most skin cancers occur among those who rarely ever spend time in the sun or who use sunscreens filled with carcinogenic chemicals. It has been known for several decades that those living mostly in the outdoors, at high altitudes, or near the equator, have the lowest incidence of skin cancers and are among the healthiest people on the planet.
Patients suffering from gout, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, tuberculosis, anemia, cystitis, eczema, acne, psoriasis, herpes, lupus, sciatica, kidney problems, asthma, as well as burns, have all shown to receive great benefit from the healing rays of the sun. Heal Yourself With Sunlight tells you, among other things, how Vitamin D, which the skin produces in response to sun exposure, keeps the body’s immune system strong, prevents the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis, and reverses numerous types of cancer, among many other illnesses. Sunlight is the ultimate source of life on earth and the ideal panacea to increase the effectiveness of every other healing modality. Unlike drugs, surgery or radiation, sunlight costs nothing, has no harmful side-effects, and foremost of all, it makes you feel good.