THE TRUTH ABOUT VACCINES

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Chikungunya and Homoeopathy

© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma MD (Homoeopathy)

Dr. Swati Vishnoi BHMS

Dr. Preetika Lakhera BHMS

Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Daud BHMS

Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Amir BHMS

For well formatted and illustrated article, please see attached file-

Chikungunya and Homoeopathy.docx

Contents

Introduction. 2

Definition. 2

Etymology. 2

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY. 2

Inoculation by bite. 2

Endocytosis. 3

Initial inflammation. 3

Adaptive immunity. 3

Resolution. 3

Transformation into chronic arthritis. 3

Acute Chikungunya. 4

Chronic chikungunya virus disease. 4

Signs and symptoms. 4

Febrile stage. 4

Arthralgia stage. 4

Rash stage. 5

Systemic stage. 5

Complications. 5

Diagnosis. 5

Clinical examination. 5

Serological tests. 6

Virological methods (RT-PCR). 6

Treatment. 6

Prevention. 6

Homoeopathic treatment. 6

Common remedies for chikungunya. 6

Short Repertory of chikungunya. 7

Bibliography. 9

Introduction

Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes (Psora). It spreads as epidemics in dense population areas and causes great concern. Its results are severe and account for prolonged sickness, debility and sufferings (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis). It may be life threatening if underestimated or maltreated. Homoeopathy has been proved curative as well as preventive, in all the viral diseases and the only full proof suitable option for such a so called uncontrollable epidemics.

Definition

Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes producing fever and severe joint pain along with muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. It is an RNA virus of alphavirus genus and family Togaviridae. (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)

Etymology

Makonde- African language- verb- kungunyala, meaning to dry up or become contorted.

Syn. CHIKV

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

The precise pathophysiology of the disease is still unknown. However, its pathophysiology can be studied as below-

Inoculation by bite

The chikungunya virus enters the host through mosquito bite. The virus is transmitted across humans by the bites of infected female mosquitoes- Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the vectors of dengue. These mosquitoes bite in daylight hours, with peaks of activity in the early morning and late afternoon. Both species are found biting outdoors, but Aedes aegypti indoors too. Incubation period rages between 4 and 8 days but can range from 2 to 12 days.

Aedes aegypti                                                                    Aedes albopictus

Endocytosis

Endocytosis causes virus entry into body cells. Its ability to replicate in human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts, and monocyte-derived macrophages makes it highly cytopathic (Psora). Single stranded RNA is released in fibrocytes as well as other blood cells using replicase and viral RNA polymerase enzymes and it is transformed into dsRNA (Psora/ Sycosis).

Initial inflammation

This dsRNA interacts with several receptors of various genes resulting in release of interferons causing initial inflammation (Psora/ Sycosis).

Adaptive immunity

One week later, initial innate inflammatory response is followed by adaptive immunity with T cell and antibody-mediated responses (Psora).

Resolution

The bulk of CHIKV cases resolve after the initial phase but some cases may advance into chronic disease with arthritis and arthralgia (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis).

Transformation into chronic arthritis

In Chikungunya, there is huge initial infection of monocytes and macrophages. These blood cells ultimately migrate to synovial tissues and cause chronic viral infection. Their continuous triggering of the inflammatory response causes severe arthritis (Psora/ Sycosis).

  • In the acute phase of chikungunya, the virus is typically present in the areas of symptoms, specifically skeletal muscles, and joints
  • In the chronic phase, the inability of the body to entirely rid itself of the virus called as viral persistence, lack of clearance of the antigen, or both, contribute to joint pain

Acute Chikungunya

It has two stages-

  • Viral stage during the first five to seven days, during which viremia occurs
  • Convalescent stage lasting approximately ten days, during which symptoms improve and the virus cannot be detected in the blood

Chronic chikungunya virus disease

Cytokines may also contribute to chronic chikungunya virus disease, as persistent joint pain has been associated with elevated levels of IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis).

In those with chronic symptoms, a mild elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been observed, suggesting ongoing chronic inflammation. Chikungunya virus disease in humans is associated with elevated serum levels of specific cytokines and chemokines. These include interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis).

Signs and symptoms

Chikungunya is characterized by following symptoms-

  • An abrupt onset of high fever during viremia (Psora)
  • Very debilitating joint pain, usually lasting for a few days or prolonged to weeks (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
  • Muscle pain (Psora)
  • Headache (Psora)
  • Nausea (Psora)
  • Fatigue (Psora/ Syphilis)
  • Rash (Psora)
  • Digestive complaints (Psora)
  • Conjunctivitis (Psora/ Sycosis)
  • Insomnia (Psora)
  • Extreme degree of exhaustion (Psora/ Syphilis)
  • Starting with sudden high fever lasting from a few days to a week, and sometimes up to ten days (Psora)
  • Fever may be biphasic—lasting several days, breaking, and then returning (Psora/ Sycosis)

Febrile stage

Arthralgia stage

After fever-

  • Vigorous joint pain or stiffness, lasting for weeks or months or even years (Psora/ Sycosis)
  • The joint pain often debilitating (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
  • Almost immobility of the affected joints (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
  • Symmetrical joint involvement (Psora/ Sycosis)
  • Occasional pain in muscles or ligaments (Psora)
  • May have a maculopapular rash after two to five days (Psora)

Rash stage

Systemic stage

  • Digestive symptoms- abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea in some cases (Psora)
  • Eye symptoms- Iridocyclitis, or uveitis, and retinal lesions may occur (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis) 
  • Neurological disorders- may be Guillain–Barré syndrome, palsies, meningoencephalitis, flaccid paralysis and neuropathy (Psora)
  • Significant fatigue and pain (Psora)
  • Maximum patients recover fully, but in a few, joint pain may continue for several months, or even years
  • Occasionally, eye, neurological, gastrointestinal complaints and heart complications may occur
  • Serious complications are not common
  • In elderly, it can cause of death
  • May be misdiagnosed with dengue

Complications

Diagnosis

Clinical examination

A careful case study may confirm the diagnosis. In contrast to dengue fever, Chikungunya fever very rarely causes hemorrhages. Symptoms of bleeding should lead to consideration of alternative diagnoses or co-infection with dengue fever or coexisting congestive hepatopathy.

Serological tests

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) may confirm the presence of IgM and IgG anti-chikungunya antibodies.

IgM antibody levels are highest 3 to 5 weeks after the onset of illness and persist for about 2 months.

Virological methods (RT-PCR)

The virus may be isolated from the blood during the first few days of infection by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR).

Treatment

Prevention

Destruction of mosquitoes, avoidance from their bites and prevention of development of their generation.

Homoeopathic treatment

Common remedies for chikungunya

abies-c. abr. abrot. Acetan. achy-a. Acon-c. ACON. Act-sp. adam. adlu. aesc. aeth. aethi-a. agar-ph. Agar. Agath-a. Agn. Ail. alet. ALL-C. allox. aloe Alum-p. alum-sil. ALUM. alumn. am-be. am-br. AM-C. am-caust. am-m. am-p. Ambr. anac. Anan. anders. Androc. Ang. Anh. Ant-c. Ant-t. antip. aphis APIS Apoc-a. apoc. aq-mar. aran-ix. aran. arb. ARG-MET. arg-n. arist-cl. arizon-l. ARN. Ars-i. ars-s-f. ARS. arthr-u. arund. asaf. asar. asc-t. astac. aster. aur-ar. aur-i. Aur-m-n. aur-m. aur-s. aur. bac. Bacls-7. Bamb-a. Bapt. bar-c. bar-i. bar-m. bar-ox-suc. bar-s. bell-p. BELL. BENZ-AC. Berb. beryl. Bism. Bit-ar. Blatta-a. Bol-la. bomb-chr. bora-o. borx. Bov. brass-n-o. Brom. bros-gau. bruc. BRY. bufo cact. cadm-met. cain. caj. cal-ren. Calad. calam. Calc-f. calc-i. CALC-P. CALC-S. Calc-sil. CALC. Camph. cann-i. CANN-S. cann-xyz. Canth. Caps. Carb-ac. carb-an. CARB-V. CARBN-S. carc. Cardios-h. cartl-s. casc. cassia-s. Castm. Caul. CAUST. cecr. cedr. cench. CHAM. CHEL. CHIN. chinin-ar. Chinin-s. chir-fl. chlam-tr. Chlol. choc. chord-umb. chrys-ac. chrysar. cic. Cimic. Cimx. cina Cinnb. cist. Cit-v. Clem. cob-n. cob. Coc-c. coca-c. Cocc. Coch. Coff. Colch. colchin. coli. Coloc. Com. Con. conch. convo-s. conyz-sm. cop. cordyc. corian-s. corn. cortico. cortiso. cot. crat. CROC. Crot-c. Crot-h. Crot-t. cupr-act. cupr-s. Cupr. cycl. cystein-l. dam. daph. des-ac. dicha. Dig. dios. dioxi. diphtox. dros. Dulc. dys. elaps enteroc. ephe-si. erig. ery-a. esp-g. euon. eup-per. eup-pur. EUPH. EUPHR. eys. Ferr-ar. ferr-i. ferr-ma. ferr-p-h. Ferr-p. FERR-PIC. FERR. fic-m. Fl-ac. flav. flor-p. Form-ac. Form. gaba gard-j. Gaul. GELS. ger-i. germ-met. gink-b. Gins. gnaph. gonotox. gran. GRAPH. grat. grin. Guaj. Guare. guat. Ham. harp. hecla hed. hell. helon. Hep. hip-ac. hippoc-k. hippoz. hist. Hydr. hydrc. Hydrog. Hyos. Hyper. ichth. ign. ina-i. influ. interf. Iod. Ip. iris jac-c. jatr-c. Jug-c. Kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-br. Kali-c. kali-chl. Kali-i. Kali-m. kali-n. KALI-P. Kali-s. kali-sil. kali-sula. Kalm. ketogl-ac. kola Kreos. Lac-ac. Lac-c. lac-d. Lac-e. lac-f. lac-h. lac-loxod-a. LACH. lact. lap-la. lappa lat-h. lat-m. Laur. lavand-a. LEC. LED. leptos-ih. lil-t. Lith-be. Lith-c. lith-sal. loxo-recl. luf-op. luna LYC. lyss. m-ambo. m-arct. m-aust. Mag-c. mag-f. Mag-m. maias-l. malar. manc. mand. mang-act. Mang. marb-w. med. melal-alt. Meny. meph. Merc-c. merc-d. MERC. merl. MEZ. Moni. morg-g. morg-p. morph. mosch. Mur-ac. murx. musca-d. myric. myris. naja Nat-ar. nat-br. Nat-c. nat-f. NAT-M. nat-p. Nat-s. nat-sil. neon nep. nicotam. Nit-ac. Nux-m. NUX-V. oci-sa. ol-an. Olib-sac. olnd. onos. op. oscilloc. osteo-a. oxal-a. oxal-c. ozone paeon. pall. pant-ac. Par. parat-b. Parathyr. penic. peti. petr-ra. Petr. PH-AC. phenob. PHOS. phys. physala-p. Phyt. PIC-AC. Pieri-b. Pipe. plac-s. plac. Plat. PLB. plut-n. polyp-p. polys. positr. pot-e. propl. propr. prot. Prun. Psil. Psor. ptel. PULS. Pycnop-sa. pyrog. quas. rad-br. Ran-b. ran-s. raph. rauw. Rheum Rhod. RHUS-T. rib-ac. ribo. Ros-d. rumx. RUTA Sabad. Sabin. sal-ac. samb. Sang. sanic. saroth. Sars. Sec. Sel. senec. Seneg. SEP. ser-a-c. sieg. SIL. sinus. slag sol-ni. sol-t-ae. solid. SPIG. spira. spong. squil. Stann. STAPH. Stel. stict. STRAM. streptoc. STRONT-C. stroph-s. suis-em. Sul-ac. sul-i. Sul-ter. sulfa. SULPH. sumb. suprar. syc. symph. syph. Tab. TARAX. tarent. tax-br. tell. tep. ter. teucr. thal-xyz. thal. thala. ther. thioc-ac. thiop. Thuj. thyr. trinit. tritic-vg. tub-a. tub-d. tub-r. tub-sp. tub. uncar-tom. Urol-h. urt-u. v-a-b. vac. VALER. vanil. vario. verat-v. Verat. verb. vero-o. vinc. viol-o. Viol-t. visc. wye. x-ray zinc-p. ZINC.

Short Repertory of chikungunya

EXTREMITIES - INFLAMMATION - Joints – chronic allox. Am-p. ant-c. arb. arn. Ars. Benz-ac. Berb. cal-ren. calc-f. calc-p. calc. caul. Caust. Chin. Cimic. colch. colchin. ferr-i. ferr-pic. Guaj. hep. Iod. Kali-br. Kali-i. lac-ac. led. lyc. merc-c. Merc. nat-br. nat-p. nat-s. osteo-a. phyt. Pipe. Puls. rad-br. Rhus-t. Ruta sabin. sal-ac. sep. sil. staph. Stel. Sul-ter. sulph. thyr. tub.

EXTREMITIES - INFLAMMATION - Joints – sudden Kalm.

EXTREMITIES - INFLAMMATION - Joints – synovitis Acon. ant-t. apis arn. bell. berb. bry. calc-f. calc. canth. caust. ferr-p. fl-ac. Hep. iod. kali-c. kali-i. led. lyc. merc. myris. phyt. puls. rhus-t. ruta Sabin. sep. sil. slag stict. sulph. verat-v.

EXTREMITIES - INFLAMMATION – Joints abrot. ACON. agn. am-be. am-caust. am-m. am-p. Ang. ant-c. Ant-t. APIS apoc. aran-ix. aran. arb. arist-cl. Arn. ars-s-f. ars. asar. Aur-m-n. Aur. bar-c. BELL. Benz-ac. berb. BRY. cact. calc-p. calc-sil. Calc. Cardios-h. caul. Caust. cham. chin. Chinin-s. cimic. clem. Colch. coloc. conch. cortiso. crot-h. cycl. dulc. eup-per. euphr. Ferr-p. ferr. Form-ac. form. Gaul. gins. gnaph. graph. Guaj. hed. hep. hip-ac. hyper. ichth. ign. Iod. kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-c. kali-chl. Kali-i. kali-s. Kalm. Kreos. Lac-ac. lach. LED. lil-t. Lith-be. lith-c. lith-sal. Lyc. mand. mang-act. Mang. meny. Merc. mez. morg-g. Nat-m. Nat-s. nat-sil. nit-ac. nux-m. pall. parat-b. parathyr. ph-ac. phos. Phyt. plb. Psor. Puls. pyrog. rad-br. ran-b. Rhod. Rhus-t. Ruta sabad. sabin. sal-ac. sang. Sars. Sep. SIL. solid. spong. Stel. stict. sul-i. sul-ter. Sulph. syph. tarax. thuj. tub-r. tub. urt-u. valer. verat-v. verat. viol-t. visc.

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - Joints - accompanied by – rash Form.

EXTREMITIES - PAIN – Joints abies-c. abrot. Acon-c. acon. aesc. agar-ph. agar. all-c. alum-p. alum-sil. Alum. alumn. am-c. am-m. am-p. anh. Apis Apoc-a. Apoc. aran. ARG-MET. arg-n. arist-cl. ARN. Ars-i. ars-s-f. Ars. arthr-u. asaf. asc-t. aster. aur-ar. aur-i. Aur-m-n. aur-s. aur. bar-c. bar-i. bar-m. bell-p. Bell. benz-ac. berb. Bol-la. bora-o. BRY. cadm-met. caj. Calc-f. calc-i. CALC-P. calc-s. Calc. cann-i. Caps. carb-ac. carb-an. Carbn-s. cartl-s. casc. cassia-s. Caust. cedr. Cham. chel. Chin. chinin-ar. cimic. Cimx. Cinnb. cist. Cit-v. Cocc. Coch. Colch. coli. Coloc. com. con. convo-s. cop. cot. croc. crot-t. cupr. cycl. daph. dig. dios. dros. Dulc. euon. eys. Ferr-ar. ferr-i. Ferr-p. Ferr. gels. Guaj. hell. hippoz. hist. hydr. hydrc. ign. Iod. ip. iris jac-c. jatr-c. Kali-bi. Kali-c. kali-n. kali-p. kali-s. kali-sil. Kalm. kreos. Lac-ac. Lac-c. lappa lat-h. lat-m. lavand-a. LED. loxo-recl. luna Lyc. lyss. mag-f. maias-l. mand. mang-act. Mang. marb-w. med. Merc. mez. morph. musca-d. Nat-ar. nat-f. nat-m. Nat-s. nit-ac. NUX-V. ol-an. olib-sac. par. penic. petr. Ph-ac. Phos. physala-p. Phyt. PLB. plut-n. positr. psil. PULS. rad-br. Ran-b. ran-s. raph. Rheum Rhod. RHUS-T. ribo. rumx. Ruta sabad. Sabin. sal-ac. Sang. sel. senec. Sil. sol-ni. sol-t-ae. spong. Staph. stroph-s. sul-ac. Sulph. symph. syph. tarent. tax-br. ter. thala. thuj. tritic-vg. tub-r. tub. v-a-b. vanil. verat-v. zinc.

EYE - INFLAMMATION – Conjunctiva abr. achy-a. ACON. act-sp. aethi-a. ail. ALL-C. alum-p. ALUM. am-br. ant-c. ant-t. APIS ARG-N. arn. ars-i. ars-s-f. ARS. asaf. asc-t. aur-i. aur. bamb-a. bar-i. bar-ox-suc. bar-s. BELL. beryl. bomb-chr. brom. bry. Calc-f. calc-i. Calc-p. CALC-S. CALC. cann-i. cann-s. Canth. CARBN-S. cedr. Cham. chin. chlam-tr. Chlol. chrys-ac. chrysar. Cinnb. Clem. coc-c. colch. conyz-sm. cortico. cortiso. crat. crot-h. Crot-t. cupr-s. des-ac. Dig. dys. ery-a. EUPHR. ferr-i. ferr-p-h. Ferr-p. flav. gels. gonotox. Graph. grat. grin. guare. Ham. Hep. hist. Hydr. influ. Iod. Ip. kali-ar. Kali-bi. kali-chl. kali-m. kali-p. kali-s. kali-sil. lap-la. lat-h. lat-m. led. leptos-ih. lil-t. Lyc. lyss. med. merc-c. merc-d. Merc. merl. mez. morg-p. myric. Nat-ar. nat-p. Nat-s. Nit-ac. Nux-v. oscilloc. oxal-c. paeon. parat-b. penic. peti. Petr. physala-p. pic-ac. pieri-b. plac. propr. psor. Puls. RHUS-T. ruta sang. sanic. sec. ser-a-c. spira. Staph. sul-i. sulfa. SULPH. sumb. syc. syph. tell. tep. thal-xyz. thal. Thuj. thyr. tub-a. tub. v-a-b. vac. Zinc.

FEVER - INTERMITTENT - accompanied by – weariness cimx.

FEVER - PAROXYSMAL fever acon. am-m. arund. Bry. Calc. camph. cham. cocc. cupr-act. cystein-l. hep. kali-sula. lyc. Merc. nit-ac. op. tub-d. zinc.

GENERALITIES - SYMMETRICAL complaints arn. bac. kali-i. lac-d. syph. thyr.

GENERALS - PAIN - Muscles - fever; during eup-per. tub-a.

GENERALS – WEARINESS Acetan. acon. adam. adlu. aesc. agar. Agath-a. alet. aloe Alum-p. ALUM. Am-c. ambr. Anac. Androc. ang. Anh. Ant-c. Ant-t. aphis aran-ix. aran. arg-met. Arg-n. arist-cl. arizon-l. Arn. Ars-i. ars. asaf. asar. aur-ar. aur-m. aur-s. aur. Bacls-7. Bamb-a. Bapt. bar-c. bar-m. bar-ox-suc. bell-p. bell. BENZ-AC. berb. beryl. Bism. Bit-ar. Blatta-a. borx. bov. brass-n-o. Brom. bros-gau. bruc. Bry. cadm-met. cain. calad. calam. calc-f. CALC-P. Calc-sil. Calc. camph. CANN-S. cann-xyz. canth. caps. Carb-ac. carb-an. Carb-v. CARBN-S. carc. cartl-s. Castm. Caust. cecr. cench. cham. CHEL. chin. Chinin-ar. chir-fl. choc. chord-umb. cic. cimic. cimx. cina cist. clem. cob-n. cob. Coc-c. coca-c. cocc. coff. colch. coli. coloc. Con. conch. cordyc. corian-s. cortico. cortiso. CROC. Crot-c. Cupr. cycl. cystein-l. dam. dicha. dig. dioxi. diphtox. dros. dulc. dys. enteroc. ephe-si. erig. esp-g. euph. euphr. ferr-ma. ferr-p. FERR-PIC. FERR. fic-m. flor-p. gaba gard-j. GELS. ger-i. germ-met. gink-b. gran. GRAPH. grat. guaj. guat. Ham. harp. hecla hed. hell. helon. Hep. hist. Hydrog. Hyos. ign. ina-i. influ. interf. iod. Ip. kali-bi. kali-c. kali-chl. Kali-m. kali-n. KALI-P. kali-s. kali-sil. kalm. ketogl-ac. kola Kreos. lac-ac. Lac-e. lac-h. lac-loxod-a. LACH. lact. lap-la. Laur. lavand-a. LEC. led. luf-op. LYC. m-ambo. m-arct. m-aust. Mag-c. mag-f. mag-m. malar. mand. mang. med. melal-alt. meny. meph. MERC. mez. Moni. mosch. Mur-ac. murx. naja Nat-c. NAT-M. Nat-s. nat-sil. neon nep. nicotam. nit-ac. Nux-m. NUX-V. oci-sa. ol-an. Olib-sac. olnd. onos. op. oxal-a. ozone pant-ac. Par. Parathyr. petr-ra. Petr. PH-AC. phenob. PHOS. phys. phyt. PIC-AC. Pieri-b. plac-s. plac. Plat. plb. plut-n. polys. positr. pot-e. propl. propr. prot. prun. Psil. Psor. PULS. Pycnop-sa. pyrog. ran-b. rauw. Rheum Rhod. Rhus-t. rib-ac. ribo. Ros-d. RUTA sabad. sabin. samb. sang. saroth. sars. sec. senec. seneg. SEP. sieg. SIL. sinus. spig. spong. squil. Stann. STAPH. Stram. stront-c. suis-em. Sul-ac. sulfa. SULPH. sumb. suprar. syc. Tab. teucr. ther. thioc-ac. thiop. thuj. trinit. tritic-vg. tub-r. tub-sp. TUB. uncar-tom. Urol-h. v-a-b. valer. vanil. vario. Verat. verb. vero-o. viol-o. Viol-t. visc. x-ray zinc-p. ZINC.

HEAD - PAIN - accompanied by – fever acon. agar. anders. apis ars. astac. Bell. bism. cedr. chin. eup-per. ferr-p. ip. nat-m. nux-v. ozone polyp-p. streptoc. wye.

HEAD - PAIN - fever - after – sore chinin-ar.

HEAD - PAIN - fever – after Ars. carb-v. cic. coff. hep. lach. plb. puls. rhus-t.

SKIN - ERUPTIONS – rash ACON. aeth. Agar. Ail. alum-p. alum. AM-C. am-m. anac. Anan. Ant-c. Ant-t. antip. Apis aq-mar. Arn. ars-i. ars-s-f. ARS. arund. asaf. bar-c. bar-m. bar-s. BELL. bov. brass-n-o. BRY. bufo Calad. calc-i. Calc-s. calc-sil. Calc. camph. Canth. Carb-v. carbn-s. cardios-h. cassia-s. CAUST. CHAM. chel. chin. chinin-s. Chlol. Clem. cocc. Coff. Com. con. cop. corian-s. corn. crot-t. cupr. dig. dros. Dulc. elaps euph. euphr. germ-met. Graph. hell. Hep. hippoc-k. Hyos. iod. Ip. Jug-c. Kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-br. Kali-s. kreos. lac-f. Lach. lat-h. Led. loxo-recl. lyc. manc. merc-c. MERC. MEZ. Nat-m. nicotam. nit-ac. nux-v. op. par. petr. PH-AC. phos. phyt. plac-s. Psor. PULS. rad-br. rheum RHUS-T. ruta sars. Sec. Sel. Sep. Sil. spong. Staph. STRAM. sul-i. SULPH. syph. tab. teucr. tub. urt-u. valer. verat. viol-t. zinc-p. zinc.

SLEEP - SLEEPLESSNESS - fever - during - agg. acon. ant-t.

STOMACH - INDIGESTION - fever; after – acute chin. quas.

STOMACH - NAUSEA - fever – after ARS. dros. Fl-ac.

STOMACH - NAUSEA - fever - during - agg. acon. anac. ant-c. ant-t. arg-met. arg-n. Ars. asar. bac. bell. borx. Bry. calc. Carb-v. cham. Chel. chin. cic. Cimx. cina cocc. con. cupr. cycl. dig. dros. Eup-per. eup-pur. ferr. fl-ac. gink-b. graph. Guare. hell. hep. ign. Ip. kali-c. lyc. Merc. mosch. nat-c. NAT-M. nit-ac. Nux-v. op. par. phos. polyp-p. ptel. PULS. rhus-t. Sabad. Sang. sel. sep. sil. squil. stann. sul-ac. sulph. thuj. tub. valer. Verat. vinc. zinc.

Bibliography

Chikungunya Virus" width="37" height="48"> Arboviruses > Chikungunya Virus Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 14e ... This virus causes chikungunya fever characterized by the sudden onset of high fever and joint pains, especially of the wrists and ankles. Joint involvement is bilateral and symmetric. A macular or maculopapular rash over much of the body is common. Encephalitis may occur. Outbreaks involving...

Chikungunya Fever" width="37" height="48"> Arthropod-Borne and Other Zoonotic Viruses > Chikungunya Fever Sherris Medical Microbiology, 6e... Chikungunya (a native term for “that which bends up”) is an Alphavirus (Togaviruses) transmitted by mosquitoes ( A aegypti and some other species), particularly in urban areas of Asia, Africa, and most recently in limited areas of Southern Europe and the Caribbean. The virus may...

E. Chikungunya Virus" width="38" height="48"> Arthropod-Borne and Rodent-Borne Viral Diseases > E. Chikungunya Virus Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, 27e ... in Italy in 2007. Occasionally cases are reported in returning travelers in the United States. In 2013, chikungunya virus became established in the Caribbean region, and is likely to spread rapidly. Clinically, the infection resembles dengue fever, but is more likely to cause high fever, rash, and severe...

Chikungunya Virus Disease" width="37" height="48"> Arthropod-Borne and Rodent-Borne Virus Infections > Chikungunya Virus Disease Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine ... Disease caused by chikungunya virus is endemic in rural areas of Africa. Intermittent epidemics take place in towns and cities of both Africa and Asia. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the usual vectors for the disease in urban areas. In 2004, a massive epidemic began in the Indian Ocean region...

A. Fever and Rash" width="34" height="48"> Common Problems in Infectious Diseases & Antimicrobial Therapy > A. Fever and Rash Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2016... Potential etiologies include dengue, Chikungunya, viral hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis, meningococcemia, yellow fever, typhus, Salmonella typhi, and acute HIV infection. ...

Differential Diagnosis" width="39" height="48"> Infections: Viral & Rickettsial > Differential Diagnosis CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics, 23e ..., leptospirosis, rickettsial diseases, other endemic alphaviruses and flaviviruses, and measles). Especially relevant in travelers from India, Indian Ocean islands, and now Central America and the Caribbean is chikungunya fever, which also presents with fever, and rash, but in 70% of cases is associated...

VIRAL ARTHRITIS" width="34" height="48"> Rheumatologic, Immunologic, & Allergic Disorders > VIRAL ARTHRITIS Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2017... Arthralgias occur frequently in the course of acute infections with many viruses, but frank arthritis is uncommon with the notable exceptions of acute parvovirus B19 infection and Chikungunya fever. Parvovirus B19 causes an acute polyarthritis in 50–60% of adult cases (infected children develop...

Encyclopedia Homoeopathica

Radar 10

Differential Diagnosis" width="32" height="48">Viral Diseases of Skin and Mucosa > Differential Diagnosis Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology, 7e ... Other arborviral infection such as chikungunya and viral exanthems. Disease with local prevalence: typhoid, malaria, leptospirosis, viral hepatitis, rickettsial diseases, and bacterial sepsis. ...

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