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Vitamin D Intoxication and Homoeopathy

© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma M.D. (Homoeopathy)

Homoeo Cure & Research Institute

NH 74, Moradabad Road, Kashipur (Uttarakhand) INDIA

Pin- 244713 Ph. 05947- 260327, 9897618594

  1. mail- drrajneeshhom@hotmail.com

               www.treatmenthomeopathy.com

               www.cureme.org.in

For well formatted and illustrated article, please see attached file-

Vitamin D Intoxication and Homoeopathy.pdf

Contents

Introduction. 2

Definition. 2

Types 2

Sources 3

Sun exposure. 3

Food. 4

Supplements 5

Serum levels of vitamin D. 5

Biochemistry 5

Hydroxylation 1. 5

Hydroxylation 2. 5

Functions 5

Vitamin D toxicity 6

Supplementation and food fortification. 6

Iatrogenic 6

Other causes 6

Pathophysiology 6

Signs and symptoms 7

Central Nervous System. 7

Renal System. 7

Gastro-intestinal system. 7

Cardiovascular System. 7

Others 7

Diagnosis 7

Treatment 8

Correction of hypercalcemia. 8

Discontinuation of vitamin D. 8

Medication. 8

Homoeopathic remedies for hypervitaminosis D. 8

Alumina. 8

Argentum nitricum. 8

Carbolic acid. 9

Colchicum. 9

Digitalis 9

Iodium. 10

Kalium brom. 10

Kalium phos 10

Merc cor 10

Opium. 11

Short repertory of vitamin D intoxication. 11

Bibliography 16

 

Introduction

Now a days, we often observe patients as well as health aware persons taking food supplements. These dietary supplements often contain Vitamin D or its analogues and calcium.

Very frequently, some physicians also keep on prescribing high doses of calcium and vitamin D to prevent or treat orthopedic and rheumatic conditions, especially in elderly. This, sometimes, leads to vitamin D toxicity, the condition called as hypervitaminosis D, which has several potential complications, even death.

Let us revise physiology of vitamin D in brief.

Definition

Hypervitaminosis D or vitamin D toxicity is a rare but potentially serious condition that occurs when there is excessive amount of vitamin D in the body caused due to intake of high doses of vitamin D usually as replacement therapy, and not by diet or sun exposure as the body regulates the amount of vitamin D produced by sun exposure, and even fortified foods do not contain large amounts of vitamin D.

Types

Several forms called vitamers of vitamin D exist. The two major forms are-

  • Vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol, and
  • Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol

These are known collectively as calciferol.

Chemically, the various forms of vitamin D are secosteroids, i.e., steroids in which one of the bonds in the steroid rings is broken.

The other forms of vitamin D are given in the below table -

Name

Chemical composition

Structure

Vitamin D1

Mixture of molecular compounds of ergocalciferol with lumisterol,1:1

 

Vitamin D2

Ergocalciferol (made from ergosterol)

 

Vitamin D3

Cholecalciferol (made from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin).

 

Vitamin D4

22-dihydroergocalciferol

 

Vitamin D5

Sitocalciferol (made from 7-dehydrositosterol)

 

Sources

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in very few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is also produced endogenously when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger vitamin D synthesis. There are three main sources of vitamin D-

Sun exposure

Vitamin D is formed through the conversion of 7- dehydrocholesterol in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB).

Food

The richest sources of vitamin D in food are-

Food

International units (IU)

Daily Value (DV)

Cod liver oil, 1 tablespoon

1,360

340

Swordfish, cooked, 3 ounces

566

142

Salmon (sockeye), cooked, 3 ounces

447

112

Tuna fish, canned in water, drained, 3 ounces

154

39

Orange juice fortified with vitamin D, 1 cup (check product labels, as amount of added vitamin D varies)

137

34

Milk, nonfat, reduced fat, and whole, vitamin D-fortified, 1 cup

115-124

29-31

Yogurt, fortified with 20% of the DV for vitamin D, 6 ounces (more heavily fortified yogurts provide more of the DV)

80

20

Margarine, fortified, 1 tablespoon

60

15

Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 2 sardines

46

12

Liver, beef, cooked, 3 ounces

42

11

Egg, 1 large (vitamin D is found in yolk)

41

10

Ready-to-eat cereal, fortified with 10% of the DV for vitamin D, 0.75-1 cup (more heavily fortified cereals might provide more of the DV)

40

10

Cheese, Swiss, 1 ounce

6

2

Supplements

With the marvelous evolution of knowledge about vitamin D and its effects, there has a come out of abundance of supplements in every size, shape, and form, like tablets, capsules, powders, and fortified food material.

Serum levels of vitamin D

Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] Concentrations and Health (1 nmol/L = 0.4 ng/mL)

nmol/L

ng/mL

Health status

< 30

< 12

Associated with vitamin D deficiency, leading to rickets
in infants and children and osteomalacia in adults

30 to < 50

12 to < 20

Generally considered inadequate for bone and overall health
in healthy individuals

≥ 50

≥ 20

Generally considered adequate for bone and overall health
in healthy individuals

> 125

> 50

Emerging evidence links potential adverse effects to such
high levels, particularly >150 nmol/L (>60 ng/mL)

Biochemistry

Vitamin D obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements is biologically inert and must undergo two hydroxylations in the body for activation-

Hydroxylation 1

The first occurs in the liver and converts vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], also known as calcidiol.

Hydroxylation 2

The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], also known as calcitriol.

Functions

  • Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption in the gut and maintains adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable normal mineralization of bone and to prevent hypocalcemic tetany.
  • It is also needed for bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Without sufficient vitamin D, bones can become thin, brittle, or misshapen.
  • Vitamin D sufficiency prevents rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.
  • Together with calcium, vitamin D also helps protect older adults from osteoporosis.
  • Vitamin D has other roles in the body, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation.
  • Many genes encoding proteins that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are modulated in part by vitamin D.
  • Many cells have vitamin D receptors, and some convert 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D.

Vitamin D toxicity

This is also called as vitamin D intoxication or VDI, hypervitaminosis D, vitamin D toxicity. This is caused due to excessive accumulation of vitamin D in body. The main routes of its excessive accumulation are-

Supplementation and food fortification

There may be toxicity from excessive supplementation.

Iatrogenic

Iatrogenic vitamin D toxicity due to empirical administration of very high doses of intramuscular vitamin D injections at frequent intervals is not uncommon, especially in elderly. It is increasingly being recognized as one of the most common causes of hypervitaminosis D and hypercalcemia.

Other causes

Endocrine disorders like primary hyperparathyroidism, MEN I & II syndrome, malignancies such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, granulomatous diseases like sarcoidosis and tuberculosis have also been associated with hypervitaminosis D.

Pathophysiology

It involves increased concentration of vitamin D metabolites reaching the VDR (vitamin D receptor or NR1I1) in the nucleus of target cells and causing exaggerated gene expressions. There are three hypotheses to explain this-

  • Increased level of plasma 1,25[OH]D, leads to increased intracellular concentration of the same.
  • The 1,25[OH] D has low affinity for the transport protein DBP (D site of albumin promoter-binding protein) and high affinity for VDR. This makes it an important ligand with access to the transcriptional signal transduction machinery. In hypervitaminosis D, various vitamin D metabolites increase, compromising the capacity of the DBP and allow other metabolites to enter the cell nucleus. Among these inactive metabolites, 25[OH]D has the strongest affinity for the VDR, so at high concentrations it stimulates transcription.
  • Vitamin D intake raises the concentration of many vitamin D metabolites especially vitamin D itself and 25[OH]D. In hypervitaminosis D, vitamin D metabolites such as vitamin D3, 25[OH]D3, 24,25[OH]2D3, 25,26[OH]2D3 and 25[OH]D3-26,23-lactone increase significantly. These concentrations exceed the DBP binding capacity and cause release of free 1-alpha 25[OH]2D3, which enters target cells. The various studies and reports of vitamin D intoxication indicate that plasma 25[OH]D3 is a good biomarker for toxicity.

Signs and symptoms

Hypercalcemia is responsible for producing most of the symptoms of vitamin D toxicity. main symptoms of vitamin D toxicity include-

Central Nervous System

Lethargy, Weakness, Confusion, Coma, Hypotonia, Hyporeflexia

Renal System

Polyuria, Nocturia, Dehydration, Nephrocalcinosis, Renal failure

Gastro-intestinal system

Nausea, Anorexia, Constipation, Pancreatitis, Gastric ulcer

Cardiovascular System

Hypertension, short QT interval, arrhythmias, ST segment elevation

Others

Band keratopathy, hearing loss, painful periarticular calcinosis

Diagnosis

If a patient presents with persistent vomiting and hypercalcemia particularly in the presence of normal parathyroid hormone, then a diagnosis of overdose of vitamin D should be suspected because its correction not only alleviates symptoms but can also prevent acute kidney injury.

  • By clinical features of hypercalcemia
  • Elevated serum and urine level of calcium
  • Reduced serum level of parathormone (intact)
  • Serum 25(OH)D level > 100ng/ml

Treatment

Correction of hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia is usually controlled by restriction of dietary calcium intake and appropriate attention to hydration.

Discontinuation of vitamin D

This usually leads to resolution of hypercalcemia. Reduction of dietary calcium and vitamin D intake is effective for treating hypercalcemia due to increased intestinal calcium absorption.

Medication

Vitamin D stores in fat may be substantial, and vitamin D intoxication may persist for weeks after Vitamin D ingestion is terminated. Hypercalcemia of vitamin D intoxication results from increased intestinal absorption of calcium and from the direct effect of 1.25[OH]D to increase resorption of bone in severe cases. These need appropriate homoeopathic remedies.

Homoeopathic remedies for hypervitaminosis D

The following are the top 10 Homoeopathic remedies to combat hypervitaminosis D-

Alumina

  • GENERALS – WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • MIND - COMA
  • GENERALS – REFLEXES - diminished
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • URINE - COPIOUS- night
  • GENERALS – LOSS - fluids, of
  • KIDNEYS - STONES
  • STOMACH – APPETITE - wanting
  • STOMACH - ULCERS
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • CHEST - PALPITATION of heart - irregular
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED
  • HEARING – LOST

Argentum nitricum

  • GENERALS – WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • MIND - COMA
  • GENERALS - REFLEXES - diminished
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • URINE – COPIOUS - night
  • KIDNEYS - STONES
  • STOMACH – APPETITE - wanting
  • STOMACH - ULCERS
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • GENERALS - HYPERTENSION
  • CHEST - PALPITATION of heart - irregular
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED
  • HEARING - LOST

Carbolic acid

  • GENERALS – WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • MIND - COMA
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • URINE – COPIOUS - night
  • GENERALS – LOSS - fluids, of
  • KIDNEYS - RENAL FAILURE - acute
  • STOMACH – APPETITE - wanting
  • STOMACH - ULCERS
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA

Colchicum

  • MIND - INACITVITY
  • GENERALS - WEAKNESS- Muscular
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • MIND - COMA
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • STOMACH – Appetite - wanting
  • STOMACH - ULCERS
  • RECTUM - Constipation
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • CHEST- PALPITATION of heart - irregular
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED
  • HEARING - LOST

Digitalis

  • MIND - Inactivity
  • GENERALS – WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • MIND - COMA
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • URINE - COPIOUS- night
  • GENERALS - LOSS- fluids, of
  • KIDNEYS - RENAL FAILURE- acute
  • STOMACH - APPETITE- wanting
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • GENERALS - HYPERTENSION
  • CHEST- Palpitation of heart - irregular
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED
  • HEARING – LOST

Iodium

  • GENERALS - WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • GENERALS - OSTEOMALACIA
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • GENERALS - LOSS-fluids, of
  • STOMACH - APPETITE- wanting
  • ABDOMEN - INFLAMMATION - Pancreas
  • STOMACH - ULCERS
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • GENERALS - HYPERTENSION
  • CHEST - PALPITATION of heart - irregular
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED
  • HEARING - LOST

Kalium brom

  • GENERALS – WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • MIND - COMA
  • GENERALS - REFLEXES· diminished
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • STOMACH - APPETITE· wanting
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED
  • HEARING - LOST

Kalium phos

  • MIND - INACTIVITY
  • GENERALS – WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • URINE – COPIOUS - night
  • GENERALS· LOSS - fluids, of
  • STOMACH· APPETITE - wanting
  • STOMACH - ULCERS
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • GENERALS - HYPERTENSION
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED
  • HEARING – LOST

Merc cor

  • GENERALS – WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • GENERALS - OSTEOMALACIA
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • MIND - COMA
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • STOMACH – APPETITE - wanting
  • STOMACH - ULCERS
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED
  • HEARING -LOST

Opium

  • MIND - INACTIVITY
  • GENERALS – WEAKNESS - Muscular
  • MIND - CONFUSION of mind
  • MIND - COMA
  • GENERALS – REFLEXES - diminished
  • URINE - COPIOUS
  • URINE – COPIOUS - night
  • KIDNEYS - STONES
  • KIDNEYS - RENAL FAILURE - acute
  • STOMACH - APPETITE - wanting
  • STOMACH - ULCERS
  • RECTUM - CONSTIPATION
  • STOMACH - NAUSEA
  • HEARING - IMPAIRED

Short repertory of vitamin D intoxication

ABDOMEN - INFLAMMATION – Pancreas achy. atro-s. Atro. bar-m. bell. bol-la. carb-an. Con. dios. fel Iod. Iris Kali-i. lept. Merc. mom-b. mucot. pancr. phos. SPONG.

CHEST - PALPITATION of heart – irregular alum. apoc. arg-n. ARS. aur-m. aur. cact. Chel. Cocc. colch. conv. Crat. croc. Dig. glon. glycyr-g. hir. ign. iod. kali-c. kalm. lach. lil-t. Lyc. lycps-v. Mang. merc. mosch. naja NAT-M. nit-ac. nux-v. Ox-ac. phos. Sang. ser-ang. spartin. spig. spong. stram. sulph. tarent. ther. visc. Zinc.

GENERALS – HYPERTENSION acon. adon. Adren. agar. ail. all-s. Am-m. Ambr. aml-ns. anh. ant-ar. aran-ix. aran. arg-n. arn. ars. asar. aster. aur-br. aur-i. aur-m-n. aur-m. Aur. Bar-c. bar-m. bell. cactin-m. cal-ren. calc-f. calc-p. calc. caust. chinin-s. chlor. chloram. chlorpr. coff. CON. convo-s. cortico. cortiso. crat. crot-c. cupr-act. cupr-ar. cupr. cyna. cyt-l. dig. diph. dulc. ergot. esp-g. ferr-i. fl-ac. gels. glon. glycyr-g. Grat. grin. ign. iod. iris kali-c. kali-chl. kali-m. kali-p. kali-sal. kres. lac-c. lach. lat-m. lyc. lycps-v. mag-c. mand. med. meli. methys. morg-p. naja nat-m. nit-ac. nux-v. onop. ph-ac. phos. phys. pic-ac. pitu-gl. pitu-p. pitu. plb-i. Plb. psor. pulm-a. puls. rad-br. Rauw. reser. rhus-t. sang. scop. Sec. sep. Ser-ang. sil. spartin-s. spartin. squil. Stront-c. Stront-i. sulph. Sumb. syph. tab. thal. thlas. thuj. tub-m. tub. uran-n. valer. vanad. verat-v. VERAT. Visc.

GENERALS - LOSS - fluids, of abrot. acon. agar. alum. anac. ant-c. ant-t. arg-met. arn. ars-i. Ars. bell. bism. borx. bov. brom. bry. bufo Calad. CALC-P. CALC. cann-s. canth. caps. carb-ac. Carb-an. CARB-V. Carbn-s. caust. cham. CHIN. Chinin-ar. CHININ-S. cimic. cina coff. Con. Crot-h. Cupr. dig. dulc. ferr-ar. Ferr. GRAPH. ham. helo. hep. ign. Iod. ip. Kali-c. Kali-p. lach. led. lyc. m-ambo. m-aust. mag-m. Merc. mez. mosch. nat-c. nat-m. Nat-p. nit-ac. nux-m. Nux-v. petr. PH-AC. Phos. plat. plb. psor. PULS. ran-b. rhod. rhus-t. ruta sabad. samb. sec. SEL. SEP. Sil. spig. Squil. stann. STAPH. stram. sul-ac. Sulph. thuj. valer. verat. zinc.

GENERALS – OSTEOMALACIA Iod. merc-c. ph-ac.

GENERALS – OSTEOPOROSIS cortico. cortiso. fl-ac.

GENERALS - REFLEXES – diminished alum. arg-n. cur. kali-br. oena. op. phys.

GENERALS - WEAKNESS – Muscular acet-ac. acon. agar. Alet. alum. alumn. am-c. am-caust. am-m. anac. anh. ant-c. Ant-t. Apis apoc. arg-n. arn. ars. asaf. aur. BAR-C. bar-m. bell. berb. borx. Bov. bry. Calc. Camph. cann-xyz. canth. Carb-ac. Carb-v. caust. cham. Chin. Chlol. cimic. clem. cocc. colch. coll. Con. cortico. Croc. Cupr. Dig. dros. Dulc. euphr. ferr-m. ferr-p. Ferr. GELS. graph. guaj. Hell. helon. hep. hydr. hyos. ign. iod. kali-bi. kali-br. kali-c. kali-hp. kali-n. kali-p. kalm. laur. Led. lob. Luf-op. Lyc. m-arct. macro. mag-c. mag-m. mag-p. mang. meny. MERC-C. merc. mez. mur-ac. Nat-c. NAT-M. NIT-AC. Nux-m. nux-v. olnd. onos. Op. pall. petr. ph-ac. phos. phys. physal-al. PIC-AC. pip-m. Plat. plb-act. Plb. puls. rad-br. rheum Rhod. RHUS-T. Ruta sabad. sarcol-ac. sec. Seneg. senn. Sep. Sil. sin-n. spartin-s. spig. stann. stram. stront-c. stry-p. Stry. sul-ac. Sulph. tab. ter. thuj. thyr. verat-v. Verat. zinc.

HEARING – IMPAIRED acon. aeth. agar. agn. Agra. alco. alet. All-c. alum-p. alum-sil. alum. Am-c. Am-m. Ambr. Anac. Ang. ant-c. ap-g. Apis arg-met. arg-n. Arn. ars-i. ars-s-f. Ars. asaf. Asar. aster. aur-ar. aur-i. aur-m. aur-s. Aur. Bapt. BAR-C. bar-i. Bar-m. bar-s. BELL. borx. Bov. Bry. bufo cact. cadm-met. caj. calad. calc-f. calc-i. Calc-p. calc-sil. CALC. calen. cann-i. cann-s. canth. caps. CARB-AN. CARB-V. carbn-o. CARBN-S. CAUST. cedr. cham. cheir. Chel. Chen-a. chin-b. CHIN. chinin-ar. chinin-s. chlf. Chlor. Cic. cimic. cist. cit-v. clem. coc-c. Cocc. coff. colch. coloc. com. Con. conin. cor-r. croc. crot-c. crot-h. Crot-t. CUPR. Cycl. der. dig. diosm. Dros. dulc. Elaps euph. Euphr. ferr-ar. Ferr-i. ferr-p. ferr-pic. Ferr. Fl-ac. Form. gad. gamb. gaul. Gels. Glon. GRAPH. grat. guaj. guar. guare. Hell. Hep. hippoz. hydr-ac. Hydr. hydrobr-ac. HYOS. iber. ign. Iod. iodof. Ip. jatr-c. kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-br. Kali-c. kali-chl. kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. kali-s. kali-sil. kalm. Kreos. Lach. lachn. Lact. Laur. Led. lepi. lil-t. lob. LYC. m-ambo. m-arct. m-aust. Mag-c. Mag-m. mag-p. mang-act. Mang. med. meny. meph. merc-c. Merc-d. merc-i-r. Merc. merl. mez. mosch. Mur-ac. nat-ar. Nat-c. NAT-M. Nat-p. Nat-sal. nicc. nicot. NIT-AC. nux-m. Nux-v. ol-j. olnd. onos. op. par. peti. PETR. PH-AC. PHOS. phys. phyt. plat. Plb. psil. Psor. PULS. ran-b. rham-cal. rheum rhod. Rhus-t. rhus-v. rob. Ruta Sabad. Sabin. Sal-ac. salin. Sang. sangin-n. sarr. sars. SEC. sel. Sep. SIL. Spig. Spong. squil. stann. Staph. Stram. Sul-ac. sul-i. SULPH. syph. tab. tarax. tarent. Tell. tep. teucr. ther. Thiosin. thuj. valer. verat-v. Verat. VERB. viol-o. wies. zinc-p. zinc.

HEARING – LOST acon. aconin. Agar. agra. all-s. alum. am-c. Ambr. Anac. ant-c. ant-t. Arg-n. arn. Ars-i. ars. asaf. Asar. aur-ar. Aur-m. aur-s. aur. bar-c. Bar-m. BELL. borx. bry. caj. calc-f. Calc. calen. cann-s. caps. carb-an. Carb-v. Carbn-s. carl. CAUST. cham. cheir. Chel. chen-a. chin. chinin-s. chinin-sal. chlor. Cic. cob-n. coca cocc. colch. con. cortico. croc. crot-t. cupr. dig. dros. dulc. Elaps ferr-p. ferr-pic. form. gels. Glon. Graph. gua. HEP. hippoz. hydr-ac. hydr. hydrobr-ac. Hyos. iod. ip. jatr-c. kali-ar. kali-bi. kali-br. kali-c. kali-i. kali-m. Kali-n. kali-p. kali-s. kara kreos. lac-c. lach. lachn. lam. laur. led. lepi. lob-e. lob. lol. LYC. Lyss. M-arct. mag-c. mag-m. mag-p. mang-act. mang. med. meny. meph. merc-c. merc-d. merc. mez. mosch. Mur-ac. nat-c. nat-m. nat-p. nat-s. nat-sal. nicc. nit-ac. NUX-V. ol-an. ol-j. olnd. peti. petr. ph-ac. phos. pilo. Plat. plb. psor. puls-n. Puls. querc-r-g-s. raph. rham-cal. rheum rhod. rhus-t. rhus-v. rob. ros-d. sabad. sal-ac. salin. sang. sangin-n. sarr. scroph-xyz. Sec. sep. sil. solid. sphing. SPIG. spong. stann. Stram. SULPH. syph. tell. ther. Thiosin. thymol. ulm-c. verat. verb. vib-t. viol-o. vip. visc. zinc.

KIDNEYS - RENAL FAILURE – acute am-c. anthraci. Apis Aral-h. bapt. canth. Carb-ac. Crot-h. Cupr-act. cupr-ar. cupr. dig. Hydr-ac. Hyos. Lach. Laur. Morph. Op. pic-ac. plb. sec. Stram.

KIDNEYS - RENAL FAILURE am-be. benz-ac. berb. cupr-ar. fuma-ac. helon. juni-c. nat-ox-act. solid.

KIDNEYS – STONES act-sp. alum. am-c. am-m. ambr. Ant-c. apoc. Arg-n. arn. baros. bell-p. bell. BENZ-AC. Berb. cact. cal-ren. CALC. Cann-xyz. Canth. cham. chin. chinin-s. Chlf. cimic. coc-c. coloc. Dios. epig. equis-h. erig. ery-a. eup-pur. fab. frag. gali. guat. hed. hedeo. hep. hydrang. ipom-p. kali-bi. kali-c. kali-i. lach. lipp. LITH-C. LYC. mag-p. med. mill. nat-m. Nit-ac. nux-m. nux-v. oci. onis. op. oxyd. PAREIR. Petr. Phos. pipe. polyg-h. rub-t. Ruta saroth. SARS. Sep. Sil. solid. Stigm. sulfa. sulph. Tab. ter. thlas. thuj. urt-u. uva vesi. Zinc.

MIND – COMA absin. Acon. aesc-g. aeth. aether agar-cit. agar-pa. agar-ph. agn. agro. ail. alco. alum. am-c. am-caust. ambr. amyg. anac. ant-t. Apis arg-n. ARN. ars. asar. atro. Bapt. Bar-c. Bell. ben-n. benz-ac. benzol. both. bov. brom. bry. bufo cact. calc. Camph. cann-i. cann-s. canth. Caps. carb-ac. Carbn-h. carbn-o. carbn-s. caust. cench. cham. chel. chen-a. chin. chlf. chlor. cic. Cocc. Colch. con. cori-r. Crot-h. cupr-act. cupr-ar. CUPR. dat-m. dig. dulc. euph-l. glon. guaj. Hell. hep. Hydr-ac. HYOS. Ign. iodof. ip. juni-v. kali-br. Kali-c. Lach. laur. lil-t. lob-p. lon-x. lyc. mag-c. merc-c. merc. merl. mez. Morph. Mosch. mur-ac. naja nat-c. Nat-m. nit-ac. NUX-M. NUX-V. oena. olnd. op. Ph-ac. phos. phyt. plat. plb. Puls. ran-b. rheum rhod. Rhus-t. ruta santin. Sec. sel. sep. sil. sol-ni. spig. stann. staph. STRAM. sul-ac. sulph. Tab. tanac. tarax. tax. ter. thuj. trinit. tub. valer. verat. viol-o. vip.

MIND - CONFUSION of mind abies-c. Abies-n. absin. acet-ac. acon-f. acon-s. Acon. act-sp. aesc-g. Aesc. Aeth. aether Agar. agn. ail. alco. alet. alf. all-c. allox. aloe alum-sil. Alum. am-c. am-m. ambr. aml-ns. amyg-p. amyg. anac-oc. Anac. ang. anh. ant-c. Ant-t. anthraci. apis Apoc. arag. aran-ix. aran-sc. aran. arg-met. Arg-n. Arn. ars-i. Ars. asaf. Asar. aspar. aster. atha. Atro. aur-m. Aur. Bapt. Bar-c. bar-i. Bar-m. bart. bell-p. BELL. benz-ac. berb. bism-o. bism-sn. Bism. Borx. both-a. both. Bov. brom. BRY. Bufo bung-fa. cadm-met. calad. calc-ar. calc-i. Calc-p. calc-s. Calc-sil. CALC. camph. CANN-I. Cann-s. Canth. Caps. carb-ac. Carb-an. CARB-V. carbn-h. carbn-o. Carbn-s. carc. carl. caust. cere-b. cham. Chel. Chin. chinin-ar. chinin-s. chlf. Chlol. chlor. chol. chr-ac. cic. cimic. cimx. cina cinnb. clem. Coc-c. COCC. cod. coff-t. Coff. coffin. Colch. Coloc. com. Con. conin. cop. cori-r. corian-s. corn. cortico. cot. Croc. Crot-c. Crot-h. crot-t. cund. cupr-ar. cupr-s. Cupr. cur. cycl. dat-a. dat-m. dig. dios. dirc. Dros. Dulc. echi. ery-a. eucal. eug. euon-a. euon. eup-pur. euphr. eupi. Fago. fagu. ferr-ar. ferr-p. Ferr. fl-ac. flor-p. form. Gels. gent-l. gins. GLON. glyc. gran. Graph. grat. guare. ham. Hell. hep. hipp. hura hydr-ac. hydr. Hyos. Hyper. iber. ign. indg. indol. iod. ip. irid-met. iris-foe. jab. jatr-c. jug-c. jug-r. kali-ar. kali-bi. Kali-br. Kali-c. kali-i. kali-n. kali-p. kali-s. kalm. Kreos. lac-ac. Lac-c. LACH. lact-v. lact. Laur. Lec. led. lil-t. lina. lob-p. lob. lol. loxo-recl. luf-op. Lyc. lyss. m-ambo. Mag-c. mag-m. mag-s. manc. mand. mang. Med. meli. menth. Meny. meph. merc-c. MERC. Mez. morph. Mosch. mur-ac. murx. myric. nabal. naja narcot. nat-ar. Nat-c. NAT-M. nat-p. nat-s. nicc. nit-ac. nit-s-d. nitro-o. NUX-M. NUX-V. oci-sa. oena. Olnd. ONOS. OP. opun-s. opun-v. oreo. osm. oxeod. par. ped. peti. PETR. ph-ac. phel. Phos. phys. Pic-ac. pip-m. pisc. pitu-gl. plan. plat. plb-chr. Plb. psil. Psor. ptel. Puls. Pyrog. ran-b. ran-s. raph. rauw. rham-cal. rheum rhod. RHUS-T. ruta Sabad. sabal sabin. sal-ac. samb. sang. sars. scut. Sec. sel. senec. Seneg. SEP. SIL. Spig. spira. spirae. spong. squil. stann. Staph. stict. Stram. stront-c. STRY. sul-ac. sulfa. sulfon. Sulph. syph. Tab. tanac. tarax. tax. tell. ter. teucr. ther. Thuj. thymol. tril-c. trom. tub. tus-fr. vac. valer. Verat. verb. viol-o. viol-t. vip. xan. xero. ZINC-P. zinc-val. Zinc.

MIND – INACTIVITY allox. aran. bapt. Bar-c. cadm-met. carbn-dox. Chel. colch. con. conin-br. corian-s. dig. gels. hydroph. ign. kali-p. Mag-m. mand. op. puls. rad-br. succ-ac. tamrnd. trios. Zinc.

RECTUM – CONSTIPATION abies-c. abies-n. abrom-a. Abrot. acet-ac. acon. Aesc-g. AESC. Aeth. Agar. agav-a. Agn. alet. allox. Aloe alum-p. alum-sil. ALUM. ALUMIN. ALUMN. Am-c. Am-m. Ambr. ammc. amph. Anac. anan. Ang. ant-c. ant-t. anth. APIS Arg-met. Arg-n. arist-cl. arn. Ars-i. ARS. arund. asaf. asar. asc-c. asc-t. aster. aur-ar. aur-i. aur-m. aur-s. Aur. bad. Bar-c. bar-i. Bar-m. bar-s. bell. Berb. bol-la. borx. botul. bov. brach. BRY. bung-fa. Cact. cadm-met. calad. calc-f. calc-i. Calc-p. Calc-s. calc-sil. CALC. camph. cann-s. canth. caps. Carb-ac. Carb-an. Carb-v. carbn-dox. CARBN-S. carc. Card-m. carl. cas-s. casc. caul. CAUST. cham. Chel. Chim. Chin. chinin-ar. chinin-s. chion. chr-ac. cic. cimx. cina CLEM. cob-n. Coca COCC. COFF. colch. COLL. Coloc. CON. Cop. cor-r. cortiso. Croc. Crot-c. Crot-h. crot-t. cub. cuph. cupr. cycl. Daph. Dig. Dios. dol. dros. Dulc. Elaps ery-a. eug. euon. eup-per. euph. euphr. fel Ferr-ar. Ferr-i. ferr-p. Ferr. fic-c. Fl-ac. flor-p. Form. gal-ac. Gamb. gels. Glyc. GRAPH. Grat. Guaj. guat. ham. hed. hedy. Hell. helodr-cal. hep. hippoz. hir. Hydr. Hydrc. hydroph. hyos. Hyper. Ign. Iod. Iris jab. jac-c. Jatr-c. Kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-br. Kali-c. Kali-chl. Kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. Kali-s. kali-sil. Kreos. lac-ac. LAC-D. LACH. lact-v. Laur. led. Lept. Lil-t. luf-op. LYC. lycps-v. m-ambo. m-arct. Mag-c. MAG-M. mag-s. Manc. mand. mang. med. meli. Meny. merc-c. Merc-i-f. Merc. MEZ. mim-p. morph. Mosch. Mur-ac. murx. musa myric. nabal. naja Nat-ar. Nat-c. nat-f. NAT-M. nat-p. nat-s. nicc-met. nicc-s. nicc. NIT-AC. nit-m-ac. Nux-m. NUX-V. nyct. oci-sa. OENA. olnd. OP. osm. Ox-ac. paeon. pall. par. paraf. petr. ph-ac. PHOS. phys. Phyt. PLAT. Plb-act. PLB. Podo. Psor. Ptel. Puls. Pyrog. querc-r. ran-b. Raph. Rat. rham-cal. rheum rhod. rhus-t. rob. RUTA Sabad. Sabin. sang. SANIC. saroth. Sars. Sec. secret. Sel. Seneg. senn. SEP. sil-mar. SIL. silphu. sol spig. Spong. squil. Stann. STAPH. STRAM. stront-c. STRY. Sul-ac. sul-i. sulfa. SULPH. sumb. Sym-r. syph. Tab. tann-ac. Tarent. tell. Ter. thal-s. Ther. THUJ. tril-p. Trios. tub-m. Tub. urt-u. ust. vario. ven-m. VERAT. Verb. vesp. Vib. viol-o. viol-t. visc. zinc-fcy. zinc-m. zinc-p. ZINC.

STOMACH - APPETITE – wanting Abies-n. abrot. absin. acet-ac. acetan. Acon. aesc. aeth. Agar. ail. alet. alf. All-c. aloe alum-p. Alum. am-c. am-m. ambr. Anac. ang. anh. anil. Ant-c. Ant-i. ant-t. Anthraci. apis apoc. arg-met. Arg-n. arist-cl. Arn. ars-br. ars-h. ars-i. ARS. arum-t. asaf. ASAR. asc-t. aster. aur-m. aur. BAC. Bapt. Bar-c. bar-i. Bar-m. bar-s. bell. ben. Berb. beryl. bism. Bol-la. Borx. Bov. brach. Brom. Bry. but-ac. Cact. cadm-met. calad. Calc-ar. calc-i. calc-p. calc-s. calc-sil. CALC. camph. cann-s. canth. caps. Carb-ac. Carb-an. Carb-v. carbn-s. carc. Card-m. Caust. cench. CHAM. CHEL. CHIN. chinin-ar. chinin-s. chion. Chlor. Cic. cimic. Cina cinnb. clem. cob-n. coca COCC. Coff. Colch. coloc. Con. convo-s. cop. cor-r. cortico. croc. crot-t. cund. cupr-ar. cupr-n. cupr. CYCL. daph. dig. dros. dulc. echi. echit. elat. eup-per. euph. euphr. Ferr-ar. Ferr-i. ferr-p. FERR. Fl-ac. flor-p. galeg. gels. gent-l. glon. glyc. Glycyr-g. gran. graph. Guaj. guat. gymno. hed. hell-o. hell. helodr-cal. helon. Hep. Hydr. hydrc. hyos. hyper. Ign. ind. indg. Iod. Ip. Iris jatr-c. jug-c. jug-r. kali-ar. KALI-BI. Kali-br. kali-c. kali-chl. Kali-i. kali-m. Kali-n. kali-p. Kali-s. kali-sil. kreos. lac-d. lac-f. lach. lact. laur. Lec. led. lil-t. lir-o. lob. LYC. lyss. m-ambo. m-arct. m-aust. Mag-c. mag-m. mag-s. manc. Mang. med. Meph. Merc-c. merc-d. Merc. Mez. mosch. Mur-ac. muru. murx. myric. naja nat-ar. nat-c. nat-f. NAT-M. nat-p. nat-s. nicc. nit-ac. Nux-m. NUX-V. oci-sa. olnd. op. osm. ox-ac. Petr. Ph-ac. PHOS. phyt. pic-ac. pip-m. pisc. plat. Plb. Podo. prun-v. prun. Psor. ptel. PULS. ran-b. ran-s. raph. rat. rheum rhod. RHUS-T. Ruta sabad. Sabin. samb. Sang. Sarr. sars. sec. sel. senec. Seneg. SEP. SIL. sol-t-ae. Spig. spong. squil. stann. staph. stram. stront-c. stry-ar. Stry-p. Sul-ac. sul-i. sulfa. SULPH. sumb. sym-r. Syph. tab. tarax. tarent. tell. tep. Ter. teucr. Thuj. trios. trom. tub-a. tub-m. upa. urt-u. vac. valer. vanad. verat. verb. viol-t. vip. xan. yohim. zinc. zing.

STOMACH – NAUSEA absin. acet-ac. acon-l. acon-s. Acon. act-sp. adon. adren. Aesc. Aeth. aether Agar. agn. ail. alco. all-c. All-s. Aloe alum-p. alum-sil. Alum. alumn. am-c. Am-m. am-p. ambr. aml-ns. Anac. anan. ang. Ango. anh. ANT-C. ANT-T. anth. apis apoc-a. apoc. apom. aq-mar. aral. Aran. Arg-met. ARG-N. arist-cl. arn. ars-h. ars-i. ARS. arund. asaf. Asar. Asc-c. astac. aster. atro. aur-i. aur-m-n. aur-s. aur. Bapt. Bar-c. bar-i. bar-m. bart. bell-p. BELL. benz-ac. Berb. Bism. Bol-la. bol-s. bomb-pr. borx. both. Bov. brach. brom. brucin. Bry. bufo bux. cact. Cadm-s. cain. caj. calad. Calc-p. Calc-s. Calc. Camph. cann-s. canth. Caps. Carb-ac. Carb-an. Carb-v. carbn-dox. CARBN-S. Card-m. carl. casc. castm. catal. caul. Caust. cent. CHAM. Chel. chen-a. chim-m. CHIN. chinin-ar. Chinin-s. Chion. chlf. Chr-ac. chrys-ac. cic-m. Cic. Cimic. Cina cinch. Cist. cit-v. clem. cob-n. COCC. Cod. coff-t. coff. COLCH. Coll. Coloc. com. Con. convo-s. cop. cor-r. cori-r. corian-s. Corn. croc. Crot-c. Crot-h. Crot-t. Cub. cund. Cupr-ar. Cupr-s. CUPR. Cycl. daph. delphin. der. DIG. digin. digox. dios. diosm. dros. dub. DULC. Echi. echit. elaps Elat. emetin. erech. erig. erio. eryth. eug. euon. Eup-per. Euph. euphr. eupi. fago. fagu. Ferr-ar. ferr-i. ferr-m. Ferr-p. ferr-s. Ferr. Fl-ac. flor-p. Form. gal-ac. Gamb. gast. Gels. genist. gent-c. gent-l. gins. glon. Gran. Graph. grat. grin. Guaj. haem. ham. hed. helia. hell-o. HELL. HEP. hera. home. hura hura-c. hydr-ac. Hydr. hydrc. hydroph. hyos. hyper. iber. ichth. Ign. indg. inul. Iod. IP. IRIS IRIS-FL. jab. jac-c. jal. jatr-c. jug-r. KALI-AR. Kali-bi. kali-br. KALI-C. kali-chl. kali-cy. kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. Kali-s. kali-tel. kalm. kiss. kou. kreos. Lac-ac. Lac-c. lac-d. lacer. Lach. lachn. lact. Laur. lec. led. lepi. lept. lil-t. lina. linu-c. lipp. lith-c. lob-c. LOB. lol. loxo-recl. luf-op. lup. Lyc. lyss. m-ambo. m-arct. m-aust. mag-c. Mag-m. Mag-p. mag-s. maland. manc. mang. med. meny. meph. merc-br. merc-c. merc-cy. Merc-i-f. merc-i-r. merc-n. Merc. merl. Mez. micr. mim-p. mit. mom-ch. morph. Mosch. Mur-ac. mygal. myric. Naja narc-po. narc-ps. narcot. Nat-ar. Nat-c. nat-f. NAT-M. Nat-p. nat-s. nicc. Nit-ac. nit-s-d. nitro-o. nux-m. NUX-V. nyct. oci-sa. oena. Ol-an. ol-j. olnd. onis. onos. op. opun-f. opun-xyz. ost. Ox-ac. paeon. pall. pana. par. paull. pen. PETR. Ph-ac. phel. Phos. phys. Phyt. Pic-ac. picro. pitu-p. plan. plat-m-n. Plat. plb-tae. Plb. plect. plumbg. Podo. prin. Prun. psil. Psor. ptel. PULS. pulx. quas. rad-br. ran-a. Ran-b. Ran-s. Raph. rat. rauw. rham-f. Rheum Rhod. RHUS-T. Rhus-v. rumx. ruta Sabad. sabin. Samb. SANG. sangin-t. sapin. sarcol-ac. Sars. scol. Sec. sel. senec. Seneg. senn. SEP. SIL. sin-n. sol-t-ae. sphing. spig. spirae. spong. Squil. stach. Stann. staph. stram. stront-c. stry. Sul-ac. sul-h. sul-i. sulfa. sulo-ac. SULPH. sumb. sym-r. syph. TAB. Tarax. tarent. tart-ac. tax. tep. Ter. teucr. Ther. Thuj. thymol. thyr. til. trach. Trios. tub. tus-p. upa. uran-met. uran-n. urt-u. ust. uva VALER. Ven-m. Verat-v. VERAT. verb. vesp. vichy-g. vinc. viol-t. vip. wies. wye. x-ray xan. yohim. zinc-fcy. zinc-p. ZINC. zing. ziz.

STOMACH – ULCERS abies-n. acet-ac. acetyls-ac. acon. aesc. agav-a. alum-p. alum. alumn. anac. ant-c. ant-t. Arg-n. Ars. atro-s. Atro. bapt. bell. berb. bism. brom. cadm-met. cadm-s. Calc-ar. calc-p. calc. canth. carb-ac. carb-an. carb-v. carc. caust. CHEL. chin. chlorpr. colch. con. cortico. Crot-h. cund. Cur. Dys. elaps emblc. erig. euph. ferr-act. ferr. fl-ac. ger. graph. grat. grin. Ham. hist-m. HYDR. iod. Ip. iris KALI-BI. Kali-c. kali-i. kali-p. Kreos. lach. LYC. mag-c. med. Merc-c. merc-i-f. merc. Mez. nat-c. nat-m. nat-p. nat-s. Nit-ac. Nux-v. op. orni. penic. petr. PHOS. plb-act. plb. prot. PSOR. ptel. ran-b. rat. rob. ruta sal-ac. SEP. sil. sin-a. staph. sul-ac. sulph. symph. syph. tab. tub. uran-met. Uran-n. vario. verat.

URINE - COPIOUS – night agar. allox. aloe alum. am-c. Am-m. ambr. Ant-c. ant-t. Apis Arg-met. arg-n. ars. Bapt. bar-c. bar-s. Bell. bov. bry. Cact. CALC-F. calc. Carb-ac. Carb-an. caust. chim. chin. chinin-ar. chlol. coloc. cop. cupr. cycl. Dig. euphr. Gels. graph. hep. hyper. kali-c. kali-chl. kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. Kreos. Lac-c. Led. Lith-c. LYC. mag-c. mag-p. Med. Merc. mez. Murx. nat-ar. nat-c. Nat-m. nat-p. Nat-s. nicc. nux-v. op. paeon. petr. Ph-ac. phos. phys. phyt. plan. plect. prun. quas. rhus-r. rhus-t. ruta sabad. samb. Sang. Sars. seneg. Sil. sin-n. SPIG. squil. Stram. SULPH. ther. Thuj. uran-met. URAN-N. vichy-g. zinc.

URINE – COPIOUS abrom-a. ACET-AC. Acon. adon. aesc. Aeth. Agar. agn. all-c. all-s. allox. ALOE alum-p. alum-sil. Alum. alumn. am-c. Am-m. am-n. Ambr. anac. anan. ang. Ant-c. ant-t. Anthraci. anthraco. Apis Apoc. aran-sc. ARG-MET. ARG-N. arn. ars-br. ars-i. ars-s-f. Ars. Arum-t. asc-c. ASPAR. aster. atro. aur-ar. aur-i. Aur-m-n. Aur-m. aur-s. Aur. Bar-c. bar-i. bar-m. Bell. benz-ac. berb. Bism. bov. brach. brom. bry. bufo Cact. cadm-met. Cain. calc-f. calc-i. Calc-p. calc-sil. Calc. Camph. CANN-I. cann-s. cann-xyz. Canth. caps. carb-ac. Carb-an. carb-v. carbn-s. card-m. caru. caust. cench. cham. Chel. Chim. Chin. chinin-ar. chinin-s. Chlol. chlor. cic. Cimic. Cina cinnb. Clem. cob-n. cob. coc-c. cocc. coch. Coff. Colch. Coloc. Con. conv. cop. Crot-c. Crot-h. crot-t. cub. Cupr. cur. Cycl. cyt-l. Daph. Dig. dros. dulc. Echi. elaps elat. Equis-h. erig. ery-a. eucal. eup-per. Eup-pur. euph. euphr. eupi. fab. fago. ferr-ar. ferr-i. ferr-m. ferr-ma. ferr-p. Ferr. Fl-ac. flor-p. foen-an. form. gal-ac. gali. gamb. GELS. gins. glon. glycyr-g. gnaph. graph. grat. guaj. ham. hed. hedy. hell-o. hell. Helon. hep. hyos. Ign. ins. Iod. ip. Iris jatr-c. junc-e. kali-ar. Kali-bi. kali-br. Kali-c. kali-chl. Kali-i. Kali-n. Kali-p. Kali-s. kali-sil. Kalm. kola KREOS. lac-ac. LAC-C. Lac-d. Lach. lact. lappa laur. Lec. LED. Lil-t. Lith-c. lob. Lyc. Lycps-v. lyss. m-arct. m-aust. Mag-c. mag-p. Mag-s. mang. med. Meli. Merc-c. merc-i-f. Merc-i-r. MERC. mez. morph. MOSCH. MUR-AC. Murx. mygal. Nat-ar. NAT-C. nat-m. Nat-p. NAT-S. nicc-s. nicc. nit-ac. nux-m. Nux-v. oci-sa. Ol-an. olnd. op. opun-s. Ox-ac. oxyt. pall. par. petr. Petros. PH-AC. Phos. Phyt. pic-ac. pin-s. pitu-p. Plan. Plb. Podo. Prun. psor. ptel. PULS. Raph. rat. rauw. rheum Rhod. rhodi. RHUS-R. RHUS-T. Ros-ca. rumx. ruta sabad. Sabin. samb. sang. sanic. santin. saroth. sarr. Sars. scop. sec. sel. Senec. Seneg. sep. sil. spartin-s. spartin. SPIG. spong. SQUIL. stann. Staph. stict. stram. stront-c. stroph-s. sul-ac. sul-i. sulfonam. SULPH. Syzyg. tab. Tarax. Tarent. tax. tell. Ter. Teucr. Ther. thiosin. Thuj. thymol. Thyroiod. trad. tril-p. uran-met. URAN-N. valer. ven-m. verat-v. Verat. VERB. vib. Viol-t. vip. visc. yohim. zinc-p. zinc. zing.

Bibliography

 Agents That Affect Bone Mineral Homeostasis > GLUCOCORTICOIDS Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 14e... of glucocorticoids on bone mineral homeostasis, these hormones have proved useful in reversing the hypercalcemia associated with lymphomas and granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis (in which unregulated ectopic production of 1,25[OH] 2 D occurs) or in cases of vitamin D intoxication. Prolonged administration...

 Calcium Disorders > Glucocorticoids Principles and Practice of Hospital Medicine, 2e... In myeloma, vitamin D intoxication, or disorders associated with ectopic production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, such as sarcoidosis and lymphoma, glucocorticoids can be very effective. Glucocorticoids impair vitamin D action, inhibit intestinal calcium absorption, and may have a direct...

 Common Laboratory Tests > Increased calcium: hypercalcemia DeGowin’s Diagnostic Examination, 10e... Hypercalcemia indicates increased bone breakdown, decreased renal excretion and/or vitamin D intoxication. CLINICAL OCCURRENCE: Endocrine: Primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, Cushing disease, Addison disease; Idiopathic: Osteoporosis, Paget disease...

 Digestion & Absorption of Nutrients > VITAMINS Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology, 26e..., that very large doses of the fat-soluble vitamins are definitely toxic. Hypervitaminosis A is characterized by anorexia, headache, hepatosplenomegaly, irritability, scaly dermatitis, patchy loss of hair, bone pain, and hyperostosis. Acute vitamin A intoxication was first described by Arctic explorers, who...

 Disorders of the Parathyroid Gland and Calcium Homeostasis > Vitamin D Intoxication Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e... D intoxication is due to an excessive biologic action of the vitamin, perhaps the consequence of increased levels of 25(OH)D rather than merely increased levels of the active metabolite 1,25(OH) 2 D (the latter may not be elevated in vitamin D intoxication). 25(OH)D has definite, if low, biologic...

 Disorders of the Parathyroid Gland and Calcium Homeostasis > Vitamin A Intoxication Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e... Vitamin A intoxication is a rare cause of hypercalcemia and is most commonly a side effect of dietary faddism (Chap. 326) . Calcium levels can be elevated into the 3–3.5-mmol/L (12–14 mg/dL) range after the ingestion of 50,000–100,000 units of vitamin A daily (10–20 times the minimum daily...

 Encyclopedia Homoeopathica

 Endocrine Disorders > E. Hypophosphatasia Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2019... and other causes of low serum alkaline phosphatase, such as early pregnancy, hypothyroidism, myeloma, severe anemia, or vitamin D intoxication. ...

 Endocrine Disorders > HYPERVITAMINOSIS D Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics, 24e... Vitamin D intoxication is almost always the result of ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin D (Lietman, 2010). Signs, symptoms, and treatment of vitamin D–induced hypercalcemia are the same as those in other hypercalcemic conditions. Treatment depends on the severity of hypercalcemia...

 Hyperparathyroidism > Differential Diagnosis Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2019... Artefactual hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia of malignancy Plasma cell myeloma (formerly multiple myeloma) Vitamin D intoxication Granulomatous diseases (sarcoidosis, tuberculosis) Familial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcemia Immobilization Hyperthyroidism Vitamin...

 Metabolic Bone Disease > Binding Proteins for Vitamin D Metabolites Greenspan's Basic & Clinical Endocrinology, 10e... levels of 25(OH)D that characterize this condition displace the often normal levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D, leading to elevated free and biologically active concentrations of 1,25(OH) 2 D. This phenomenon at least partially explains the hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria that mark vitamin D intoxication even...

 Metabolic Bone Disease > Hypervitaminosis D Greenspan's Basic & Clinical Endocrinology, 10e... Hypercalcemia may occur in individuals ingesting large doses of vitamin D either therapeutically or accidentally (eg, irregularities in milk product supplementation with vitamin D have been reported). The initial signs and symptoms of vitamin D intoxication include weakness, lethargy, headaches...

 Radar 10

 Therapeutic Drugs and Antidotes > PYRIDOXINE (VITAMIN B 6 ) Poisoning & Drug Overdose, 7e... cause seizures by interfering with pyridoxine utilization in the brain, and pyridoxine given in high doses can control these seizures rapidly and may hasten consciousness. It can also correct the lactic acidosis secondary to isoniazid-induced impaired lactate metabolism. In ethylene glycol intoxication...

Radar Opus 2.1.11

 

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