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Pregnancy related Acute Kidney Injury and Homoeopathy

Pregnancy related Acute Kidney Injury and Homoeopathy

© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma MD (Homoeopathy)

Dr. Swati Vishnoi BHMS

Dr. Preetika Lakhera BHMS

Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Daud BHMS

Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Amir BHMS

For well formatted and illustrated article please see attached file-

Pregnancy related Acute Kidney Injury and Homoeopathy.docx

Contents

Introduction. 2

Definition. 2

Pathophysiology. 2

Degree of injury. 2

Sub lethal injury. 2

Lethal injury. 2

Causes. 3

Thrombotic microangiopathy. 3

Renal cortical necrosis. 3

Acute pyelonephritis. 3

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy. 3

Urinary tract obstruction. 4

Nephrolithiasis. 4

Signs and symptoms. 4

Diagnosis. 5

Anuria (< 100 mL/day). 5

Oliguria (100-400 mL/day). 5

Nonoliguria (>400 mL/day). 5

Laboratory studies. 5

Differential Diagnosis. 6

Treatment. 6

Common remedies for AKI 6

Short repertory of AKI 7

Bibliography. 12

Introduction

Pregnancy is a divine blessing in the life of a women. It not only changes her physical life but also her mental, social and personal entities.

Occasionally, the fortune reverses and pregnancy may prove to be a curse damaging herself entirely. The main hazard appears in the form of acute kidney injury.

Definition

Sudden loss of kidney function (Psora/ Syphilis), causing urea and other nitrogenous waste products retention (Sycosis) as well as dysregulation of extracellular volume and electrolytes (Psora) is called Acute kidney injury (AKI).

Pathophysiology

Acute kidney injury has high mortality rates. Pregnancy causes physiological changes in renal and systemic hemodynamics altering acid-base, electrolyte, and renal function. (Psora)

During pregnancy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increases significantly (Psora/ Sycosis), resulting in a lower baseline serum creatinine.

During acute kidney injury, there is a series of changes-

  • Rapid decline in GFR usually associated with decreased renal blood flow (Syphilis)
  • Inflammation causes extension of injury (Psora/ Sycosis)
  • Impaired energetics of the highly metabolically active nephron segments such as proximal tubules and thick ascending limb, in the renal outer medulla, can trigger conversion from transient hypoxia to intrinsic renal failure (Syphilis)

Degree of injury

Injury to kidney cells can be sub lethal or lethal-

Sub lethal injury

It may intensely effect GFR and renal blood flow. Recovery depends on the degree to which sub lethal cells can restore normal function and promote regeneration. (Psora/ Syphilis)

Lethal injury

There occur irreversible changes in the system and necrosis ensures the decline of the system. (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)

Causes

Several factors may injure kidneys but in different ways during or after pregnancy. The primary causes of AKI include ischemia (Psora/ Syphilis), hypoxia (Psora) or nephrotoxicity (Causa occassionalis). The main ailments are-

Thrombotic microangiopathy

Acute renal failure in late pregnancy is common with-

  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)- almost always occurs antepartum (Psora/ Syphilis)
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)- generally a postpartum disease (Syphilis)
  • Severe preeclampsia- typically develops in the third trimester, usually with the HELLP syndrome- hemolysis with a microangiopathic blood smear, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count (Syphilis/ Sycosis)

Renal cortical necrosis

Bilateral renal cortical necrosis (Syphilis) or, in less severe cases, acute tubular necrosis (Syphilis) may be induced during pregnancy by-

  • Abruptio placentae (Psora/ Syphilis)
  • Placenta previa (Psora/ Syphilis)
  • Prolonged intrauterine fetal death (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
  • Amniotic fluid embolism (Psora/ Sycosis)

Acute pyelonephritis

Although renal function is generally well upheld during acute pyelonephritis, some pregnant women can develop acute renal failure. (Psora/ Syphilis)

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy

  • Related with acute renal failure in up to 60 percent of cases
  • Often seen with preeclampsia with hypoglycemia, hypofibrinogenemia, and a prolonged PTT in the absence of abruptio placentae (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
  • Stress on the ureters by the gravid uterus typically results in mild to moderate dilatation of the collecting systems called functional hydronephrosis, especially right (Causa occassionalis)
  • Obstruction may be sufficient to cause renal failure
  • Rare condition to produce acute urinary tract obstruction in pregnancy (Psora)
  • May present with acute flank pain and microscopic or gross hematuria, rather than renal failure (Psora/ Syphilis)

Urinary tract obstruction

Nephrolithiasis

Signs and symptoms

In the early stages of AKI, there may not be any symptoms except scanty or nil urination. Affected patients typically have one of the above complications of pregnancy and then develop the unexpected onset of oliguria or anuria. Acute kidney injury is characterized by the triad of-

  • Anuria
  • Gross hematuria
  • Flank pain

Other symptoms are-

  • Chest pressure or pain
  • Coma in severe cases
  • Confusion
  • Drowsiness
  • Fatigue
  • Fluid retention, causing swelling in legs, ankles or feet
  • Nausea
  • Reduced urine output, but sometimes urine output may be normal
  • Seizures
  • Shortness of breath

Diagnosis

In AKI, following points must be considered-

  • Abdominal aneurysm
  • Alcohol toxicity and ketoacidosis
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Dehydration
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding
  • Heart failure
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Obstructive uropathy
  • Protein overloading
  • Renal calculi
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Steroid use
  • Urinary obstruction
  • Urinary tract infection

Urine output must be measured and noted. Presence of anuria, oliguria, and nonoliguria may be useful in the differential diagnosis of AKI. The following points become essential in diagnosis-

Anuria (< 100 mL/day)

  • Urinary tract obstruction
  • Renal artery obstruction
  • Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN)
  • Bilateral diffuse renal cortical necrosis
  • Prerenal failure
  • Hepatorenal syndrome
  • Acute interstitial nephritis
  • Acute glomerulonephritis
  • Partial obstructive nephropathy
  • Nephrotoxic and ischemic ATN
  • Radiocontrast-induced AKI
  • Rhabdomyolysis

Oliguria (100-400 mL/day)

Nonoliguria (>400 mL/day)

Laboratory studies

Most essential lab tests for AKI are

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Serum biochemistries
  • Urine analysis with microscopy
  • Urine electrolytes
  • Ultrasonography
  • Doppler methods
  • Acute Tubular Necrosis
  • Azotemia
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Emergent Management of Acute Glomerulonephritis
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Emergency Medicine
  • Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypermagnesemia
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hypertensive Emergencies

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Main goal of treatment for acute kidney injury is to prevent further renal loss, to maintain the renal balance and to repair the damage occurred.

Maintenance of volume homeostasis and correction of biochemical abnormalities are the primary goals of treatment and may include-

  • Correction of fluid overload
  • Correction of severe acidosis
  • Correction of hyperkalemia
  • Correction of hematologic abnormalities like anemia, uremic platelet dysfunction
  • Homoeopathic constitutional remedy

Common remedies for AKI

absin. acetan. ACON. adon. aesc-c. aesc. Aeth. agar-ph. Agar. AIL. alco. ALET. alf. all-c. all-s. allox. ALOE alum-p. ALUM. alumn. am-be. AM-C. am-caust. AM-M. ambr. aml-ns. anac. anan. ANT-C. ant-m. ANT-T. anthraci. antip. APIS APISIN. apoc. aral-h. aran. ARG-MET. Arg-n. arge-pl. arist-cl. ARN. Ars-h. Ars-i. ars-s-f. ARS. arum-t. asaf. Asar. asc-c. aspidin. astac. astat. aur-ar. aur-i. aur-m-n. AUR-M. aur-s. AUR. Bapt. bar-br. BAR-C. bar-i. bar-met. bell-p. BELL. benz-ac. berb. beryl-m. beryl. bism-sn. BISM. BORX. botul. Brach. Bry. bufo Cact. cadm-m. caes-met. cain. CALC-AR. calc-f. calc-i. calc-m. calc-p. Calc. calen. camph. cann-i. Cann-s. cann-xyz. Canth. Caps. CARB-AC. CARB-V. Carbn-s. carc. castm. Caul. Caust. Cedr. CHAM. CHEL. Chim. Chin. Chinin-ar. chinin-s. chir-fl. chlam-tr. Chlf. Chlol. chlor. chloram. chr-m. Cic. CIMIC. Cina cinnb. cob-m. cob. coc-c. COCC. coch. coff. Colch. coll. coloc. Con. conv. cop. cortiso. creat. CROC. Crot-c. Crot-h. cub. Cupr-act. Cupr-ar. CUPR-M. cupr-s. Cupr. cycl. Dig. diph-t-tpt. DROS. Dulc. elaps Elat. equis-h. Erig. eucal. euon-a. Euon. euonin. Eup-pur. faec. Ferr-ar. ferr-c. Ferr-i. Ferr-m. FERR-P. ferr-pic. FERR. form. fuch. Gels. germ-met. GLON. glycyr-g. GOSS. Graph. hafn-met. Ham. HELL. Helo-s. helo. helon. Hep. hip-ac. Hippoz. HYDR-AC. Hydr. HYOS. hyosin. hyper. IGN. Iod. Ip. irid-met. jab. juni-v. kali-ar. kali-bi. KALI-BR. KALI-C. Kali-chl. KALI-FCY. Kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. KALI-S. Kalm. kiss. Kreos. kres. LAC-AC. Lac-c. LAC-D. lac-v. LACH. lact-v. lact. Lam. lanth-met. lat-h. lat-m. LAUR. lec. Leptos-ih. lesp-c. lesp-s. liat. lil-t. lith-c. lith-m. lob-e. lob. lon-x. loxo-lae. Lyc. lycps-v. LYSS. mag-c. Mag-m. Mag-s. mang-act. mang-m. mang. med. mela. MERC-C. Merc-cy. merc-d. merc-i-f. Merc-i-r. merc-n. MERC. methyl. mez. mill. Moly-met. MORPH. mosch. mur-ac. Murx. myric. naphtin. NAT-ACT. NAT-AR. NAT-C. nat-f. nat-hchls. NAT-M. NAT-P. NAT-S. nat-sal. Nit-ac. nux-m. NUX-V. oci. Oena. ol-j. ol-sant. op. osm-ac. osm-met. osm. ourl. oxyd. passi. petr. petros. PH-AC. phase-xyz. phenac. Phos. Phyt. Pic-ac. pilo-m. pilo. pip-m. pitu-p. pitu. Plat. Plb-c. plb-m. plb-p. PLB. plut-n. Podo. polon-met. polyg-h. pop. Psor. PULS. Pyrog. queb. rad-br. rad-met. raph. rat. rham-cath. rhen-met. RHUS-T. ric. Rob. SABAD. SABIN. Sal-ac. samb-c. samb. Sang. Sars. scarl. scop. SEC. sel. Senec. seneg. SEP. Ser-ang. Sil. sol-crl. SOLID. spartin-s. spartin. spig. spirae. squil. Stann. staph. stigm. STRAM. streptom. Stront-c. stront-m. Stroph-h. Stry. strych-g. sul-ac. sul-i. sulfa. sulfon. Sulph. Syc. TAB. tanac. tant-met. tarax. Tarent. tax. TER. terebe. thal-met. thal-xyz. thlas. thuj. thymol. thyr. tub-m. tub. tung-met. Uran-met. Uran-n. Urea urin. Urt-u. vac. valer. vanad. Verat-v. VERAT. vesi. vib. viol-o. vip. visc. zinc-m. zinc-p. zinc-pic. zinc. zing.

Short repertory of AKI

Albuminuria ant-c. Apis Ars. aur. bry. calc-ar. Canth. Ferr. glon. hell. kali-c. lac-d. lach. lyc. Merc-c. nat-c. nat-p. ph-ac. Phos. phyt. Plb. puls. rhus-t. Sulph. ter. thuj. valer.

Asthma; bronchial – uraemic solid.

BACK - OPISTHOTONOS - convulsions, during – uremic plb.

BLOOD – UREMIA AIL. aloe am-be. am-c. APISIN. apoc. ars. asc-c. aur-m. bapt. bell. benz-ac. berb. botul. calc. camph. cann-i. CANTH. carb-ac. chlf. cic. cupr-act. cupr-ar. CUPR. dig. eup-pur. gels. glon. glycyr-g. graph. HELL. hydr-ac. HYOS. iod. jab. kali-br. lach. lyc. merc-n. methyl. MORPH. mosch. oena. OP. PHOS. PIC-AC. pilo. plb. queb. rham-cath. senec. seneg. ser-ang. SOLID. STRAM. sulfa. TER. tub. urea urin. urt-u. VERAT-V.

Brain - MEDULLA, problems - acute, atrophy with uremia Phos.

Breathing - DIFFICULT, breathing - uremia, with solid.

CHEST - DROPSY - accompanied by – albuminuria Lach.

CHEST - HEART; complaints of the - accompanied by – uremia Ser-ang.

CHEST - HEART; complaints of the - accompanied by - urine – albuminous  spartin.

EXTREMITIES - SWELLING - Lower limbs - dropsical - albuminuria, in Apis Ars. Calc-ar. Ferr. Lach. Sars. Ter.

Eyes - DISTORTED, eyes - convulsions, with uremic plb.

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - DELIVERY - after; complaints - recovery, slow Graph.

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PREGNANCY - after; complaints - recovery; slow ARN. graph.

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PREGNANCY - after; complaints Acon. alet. ant-m. arn. bell. beryl-m. Bry. cadm-m. calc-m. calc. caul. cham. chlam-tr. chlor. chr-m. cimic. cob-m. cocc. con. cupr-m. Gels. helon. ign. ip. KALI-C. Kreos. lith-m. mag-c. mang-m. mur-ac. nux-m. NUX-V. plat. plb-m. PULS. pyrog. Rhus-t. sabin. sec. SEP. stram. stront-m. sulph. tab. verat. vib. zinc-m.

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PREGNANCY - during; complaints Acon. aesc. Agar. ALET. ALUM. am-c. AM-M. ambr. ANT-C. ANT-T. APIS apoc. ARG-MET. arg-n. arge-pl. arist-cl. ARN. ars. asaf. Asar. astat. aur-m. aur-s. aur. bar-br. BAR-C. bar-i. bar-met. bell-p. BELL. BENZ-AC. bism-sn. BISM. BORX. Bry. caes-met. calc-p. Calc. CAMPH. CANTH. Caps. CARB-AC. Carb-v. Caul. Caust. CHAM. CHEL. CHIN. chlam-tr. cic. CIMIC. cinnb. COCC. coff. coll. coloc. con. CROC. CUPR. cycl. DROS. dulc. equis-h. ferr-c. FERR-P. FERR. Gels. glon. GOSS. graph. hafn-met. Ham. HELL. helon. hip-ac. hydr. HYOS. ign. Ip. irid-met. jab. kali-bi. kali-br. KALI-C. KALI-FCY. kali-i. kalm. Kreos. LAC-AC. Lach. Lam. lanth-met. LAUR. lyc. LYSS. mag-c. mang. merc-d. merc-i-f. MERC. mill. mosch. mur-ac. Murx. nat-c. NAT-M. nux-m. NUX-V. op. osm-met. petr. phos. Plat. plb-p. plb. podo. polon-met. pop. Psor. Puls. pyrog. raph. rat. rhen-met. Rhus-t. SABAD. sabin. sang. Sec. sel. Senec. SEP. sil. spig. Stann. staph. stram. sul-ac. Sulph. tab. tant-met. Tarent. thal-met. tung-met. valer. verat. vib. viol-o. zinc.

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX – PREGNANCY acon. aesc. Agar. ALET. alum. am-c. Am-m. ambr. Ant-c. ANT-T. arg-n. arn. ars. asaf. Asar. bar-c. bell-p. BELL. Benz-ac. Bism. Bry. calc-p. Calc. CAMPH. Canth. Caps. carb-ac. Carb-v. Caul. Caust. CHAM. Chel. chin. chlam-tr. cic. CIMIC. COCC. coff. coll. coloc. Con. CROC. cupr. cycl. Dros. dulc. ferr-c. Ferr-p. ferr. glon. Goss. graph. Ham. HELL. helon. hydr. Hyos. ign. Ip. jab. kali-bi. kali-br. kali-c. kali-i. kalm. kreos. Lac-ac. Lach. Lam. Laur. Lyc. Lyss. mag-c. mag-m. mang. merc-i-f. merc. mill. mosch. mur-ac. Murx. nat-c. nat-m. nit-ac. nux-m. nux-v. op. petr. ph-ac. phos. Plat. plb. podo. pop. Psor. PULS. raph. rat. Rhus-t. Sabad. SABIN. sang. Sec. sel. SEP. sil. spig. Stann. staph. Stram. sul-ac. Sulph. tab. Tarent. valer. VERAT. viol-o. zinc.

GENERALITIES - CONVULSIONS – uremic apis apoc. ars. bell. Carb-ac. chlf. cic. crot-h. cupr-act. cupr-ar. Cupr. Dig. glon. hell. hydr-ac. KALI-BR. Kali-s. lon-x. merc-c. Mosch. oena. Op. pilo. Plb. stram. Ter. urea urt-u. verat-v.

GENERALITIES - CONVULSIONS, spasms – uremic apisin. apoc. ars. bell. CARB-AC. chlf. cic. crot-h. cupr-act. cupr-ar. CUPR. DIG. glon. hell. hydr-ac. KALI-BR. KALI-S. lon-x. merc-c. MOSCH. oena. OP.  pilo. PLB. stram. TER. urea urt-u. verat-v.

GENERALITIES - UREMIA - anuria, with complete pic-ac.

GENERALITIES - UREMIA – cardiac ser-ang.

GENERALITIES - UREMIA - hysteria, in Aloe

GENERALITIES – UREMIA Ail. aloe am-be. am-c. Apis apoc. ars. asc-c. aur-m. bapt. bell. benz-ac. berb. botul. calc. cann-i. Canth. carb-ac. chlf. cic. cupr-act. cupr-ar. Cupr. dig. eup-pur. gels. glon. glycyr-g. graph. Hell. hydr-ac. Hyos. iod. jab. kali-br. lach. lyc. merc-n. methyl. Morph. mosch. Op. Phos. Pic-ac. pilo. plb. queb. senec. seneg. ser-ang. Stram. sulfa. Ter. tub. urea urin. urt-u. Verat-v.

GENERALS - APOPLEXY - accompanied by – uremia kali-br.

GENERALS - CONVULSIONS - pregnancy agg.; during agar. aml-ns. anan. apoc. ars. Bell. bry. calc. camph. castm. caust. Cedr. Cham. chin. Chlol. Cic. Cina cocc. coff. CON. Cupr. ferr. Gels. glon. hell. Hyos. IGN. Ip. kreos. lach. lyc. lyss. mag-c. mag-m. mill. mosch. nat-m. nux-m. Nux-v. Oena. op. passi. phos. pitu. plat. plb. puls. Rhus-t. sec. sep. sol-crl. spirae. Stann. staph. stram. Stry. sul-ac. sulph. tanac. thyr. valer. Verat-v. verat. zinc.

GENERALS - CONVULSIONS – uremic apis apoc. ars. bell. Carb-ac. chlf. chlol. cic. crot-h. cupr-act. cupr-ar. Cupr. Dig. glon. hell. hydr-ac. KALI-BR. Kali-s. lon-x. merc-c. Mosch. oena. Op. pilo. Plb. stram. Ter. urt-u. Verat-v.

GENERALS - DIABETES MELLITUS - accompanied by – albuminuria helon.

GENERALS - DROPSY - external dropsy - albuminuria; with apis apoc. AUR-M. Chin. Eup-pur. Helon. Hep.

GENERALS - HYPERTENSION - accompanied by - urine; albuminous visc.

GENERALS - LABORATORY findings - albumin-globulin ratio inverted beryl.

GENERALS - THROMBOSIS - albuminuria, in calc-ar.

GENERALS - UREMIA - accompanied by - respiration – asthmatic solid.

GENERALS - UREMIA - accompanied by - respiration – difficult aspidin. solid.

GENERALS - UREMIA - accompanied by – vomiting apoc. ars. iod. kreos. nux-v. samb. scop. senec.

GENERALS - UREMIA – chronic botul.

GENERALS – UREMIA am-c. Apis apoc. ars. arum-t. asc-c. aur. Bapt. Bell. benz-ac. cann-i. Canth. Carb-ac. carb-v. cic. crot-h. Cupr-act. cupr-ar. Dig. diph-t-tpt. glon. Hell. HYDR-AC. hyos. kali-bi. kali-br. lesp-c. lesp-s. Morph. Op. phenac. phos. Pic-ac. pilo. plb. queb. senec. ser-ang. Stram. sulfa. ter. urea urt-u. verat-v.

GENERALS - WEAKNESS – albumin uria, inArs. Calc-ar. Dig. Iod. Merc-c. Nat-c. Ter.

HEAD - CONGESTION - uremic poison, from am-c. apis Bell. con. Cupr. Gels. Glon. merc-c. Stram. tab. ter. verat-v.

Head - CONGESTION, head, hyperemia - uremic, poison, from am-c. apis Bell. con. Cupr. Gels. Glon. merc-c. Stram. tab. ter. verat-v.

HEAD - Headache - cause – Uraemia arn. bapt. cann-i. Glon. hyper. Sang.

HEAD PAIN - GENERAL - uremia, in arn. bapt. cann-i. carb-ac. cupr-ar. Glon. hyper. phos. Sang. zinc-pic.

Headaches - UREMIA, in anac. arn. cann-i. carb-ac. colch. cupr-ar. Glon. hyper. Sang.

KIDNEYS – ATROPHY alum. calc-f. mag-m. mag-s. plb.

Kidneys - BRIGHT’S disease - convulsions, with uremic CUPR-M. Dig. KALI-BR.

KIDNEYS - INFLAMMATION - accompanied by – albuminuria calc-ar. fuch. mang-act. spartin.

KIDNEYS - INFLAMMATION - accompanied by – uremia aeth. am-c. ars. bell. cann-i. Carb-ac. cic. Cupr-ar. hell. hyos. Morph. Op. pilo. stram. urea

KIDNEYS - INFLAMMATION - bloody - ink-like, albuminous urine, with COLCH. terebe.

KIDNEYS - INFLAMMATION - chronic - accompanied by - urine; albuminous ars. calc-p. kali-c. lach. phos. plb. sulph.

KIDNEYS - INFLAMMATION - parenchymatous - accompanied by – albuminuria phos.

KIDNEYS - INFLAMMATION - uremic symptoms, with aeth. am-c. ars. bapt. bell. cann-i. Carb-ac. cic. Cupr-ar. hell. hyos. Morph. Op. pilo. stram. urea verat-v.

Kidneys - INFLAMMATION, kidneys - uremic, symptoms, with - coma, with bapt.

Kidneys - INFLAMMATION, kidneys - uremic, symptoms, with - uterine complaints, with helon.

Kidneys - INFLAMMATION, kidneys - uremic, symptoms, with aeth. am-c. ars. bapt. bell. cann-i. Carb-ac. cic. Cupr-ar. hell. helon. hyos. Morph. Op. pilo-m. stram. urea verat-v.

KIDNEYS - RENAL FAILURE – acute am-c. anthraci. Apis Aral-h. bapt. canth. Carb-ac. Crot-h. Cupr-act. cupr-ar. cupr. dig. germ-met. Hydr-ac. Hyos. Lach. lat-m. Laur. Morph. Op. pic-ac. plb. sec. Stram.

KIDNEYS - RENAL FAILURE – chronic aesc-c. allox. am-c. apis apoc. arg-n. ars. arum-t. aspidin. aur-m-n. aur-s. aur. benz-ac. chloram. creat. crot-h. juni-v. kali-c. kres. lach. lob-e. Lyc. mag-c. Mag-m. Mag-s. merc-c. merc. nat-c. nat-m. op. ph-ac. Phos. pip-m. pitu-p. plb. sep. Ser-ang. solid. stram. streptom. Sulph. ter. thuj. Urea urt-u.

KIDNEYS - SUPPRESSION of urine - uremia with complete anuria pic-ac. plb.

KIDNEYS - SUPPRESSION of urine ACON. Aeth. agar-ph. Ail. alf. am-caust. Anthraci. APIS apoc. aral-h. aran. Arg-n. ARN. Ars-h. Ars-i. ars-s-f. ARS. Arum-t. asc-c. aur-ar. aur-m-n. aur-s. aur. Bell. bism. bry. bufo Cact. calc-i. calc. calen. Camph. CANTH. Carb-ac. CARB-V. carbn-s. caust. Cic. coc-c. coff. Colch. con. Crot-h. Cupr-act. cupr-s. Cupr. Dig. dulc. elaps Elat. Erig. eucal. Eup-pur. form. Hell. hep. Hydr. Hyos. Ign. iod. juni-v. Kali-bi. kali-br. kali-c. kali-chl. kali-m. Lac-c. LACH. LAUR. liat. lil-t. lob. LYC. Merc-c. merc-cy. merc. Morph. nat-m. nit-ac. nux-v. Op. osm. oxyd. petr. Phos. phyt. pic-ac. Plb. plut-n. Podo. puls. pyrog. Rob. SEC. sep. Ser-ang. Sil. solid. stigm. STRAM. Stront-c. sul-ac. Sulph. tab. tarax. Tarent. Ter. Urt-u. VERAT. vip. zinc-p. zinc. zing.

KIDNEYS - SUPPRESSION of urine, anuria - uremia with complete anuria pic-ac. plb.

Kidneys - UREMIA - coma, uremic Am-c. Apis apoc. ars. asc-c. Bell. cann-i. Canth. Carb-ac. cic. Cupr-ar. cupr. Glon. hell. hydr-ac. hyos. kali-br. Morph. Op. phos. Pic-ac. pilo-m. queb. ser-ang. stram. Tab. Ter. urea urt-u. Verat-v.

Kidneys - UREMIA - convulsions, with apoc. cic. crot-h. cupr-ar. Cupr. Dig. hydr-ac. Kali-s. merc-c. Mosch. Plb. Ter.

Kidneys - UREMIA - head, congestion, with am-c. apis Bell. con. Cupr. Gels. Glon. merc-c. Stram. tab. ter. verat-v.

KIDNEY-URINARY ORGANS - INFLAMMATION - acute parenchymatous APIS Canth. carb-ac. Colch. Con. Glon. helon. Kali-chl. kali-s. NAT-S. Stram. TER. uran-met.

KIDNEY-URINARY ORGANS - INFLAMMATION - bloody,ink-like,albuminous urine, with COLCH.

Lungs - ASTHMA, general - uremia, with solid.

Mind - AGONY, anguish - uremia, in Hydr-ac.

MIND - ANGUISH - indescribable - uremia, in asphyxial form of HYDR-AC.

MIND - ANGUISH - uremia, in ars. HYDR-AC.

MIND - COMA - uremia; in Am-c. bell. bry. Carb-ac. cupr-ar. Hell. merc-c. Morph. Op. verat-v.

MIND - MANIA - albuminuria, in Phyt.

MIND - STUPOR - uremia, in ter.

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS - uremic coma canth. Op. Tab. ter.

MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS, coma - uremic coma  Am-c. apis apoc. ars. aur. bell. bry. cann-i. canth. Carb-ac. cic. Cupr-ar. cupr. Glon. glycyr-g. Hell. hydr-ac. hyos. kali-br. kali-chl. merc-c. Morph. Op. phos. Pic-ac. pilo. queb. ser-ang. stram. Tab. ter. urea urt-u. verat-v.

NERVOUS SYSTEM - Convulsions – Uraemic Carb-ac. cic. Cupr-ar. glon. hell. Hydr-ac. kali-br. merc-c. oena. Op. pilo. plb. urt-u.

Pregnancy - CONFINEMENT, puerperal - convulsions - uremia, from, or reflex irritation Chlf.

Pulse - FAST, pulse, elevated, exalted - uremia, asphyctic form Hydr-ac.

Pulse - SOFT, pulse - uremia, in, asphyctic form Hydr-ac.

RESPIRATION - ASTHMATIC - uremia, with solid.

RESPIRATION - DIFFICULT - uremia, with queb. solid.

Respiration - difficult, suffocating, choking - uremia, with solid.

SENSATIONS AND COMPLAINTS IN GENERAL – Uraemia am-c. Ars. cic. cupr-ar. glon. hydr-ac. Op. plb.

SKIN - DISCOLORATION - yellow - albuminuria; with Dig.

SLEEP - COMATOSE – uremic agar. AM-C. anac. ars. aur. bell. bry. CARB-AC. cupr-ar. HELL. lach. lact-v. MERC-C. MORPH. OP. ter. verat-v.

Sleep - DEEP, sleep – uremic agar. Am-c. anac. ars. aur-m. bell. bry. Carb-ac. cupr-ar. Hell. lach. lact. Merc-c. Moly-met. Op. ter. verat-v.

SLEEP - SLEEPINESS - albuminuria, in Helo-s. Helon.

STOMACH - VOMITING - General - uremia, in apoc. Ars. cupr-ar. hyosin. iod. kreos. nux-v. samb. senec.

URINARY SYSTEM - Kidneys - Inflammation - concomitants - uraemic symptoms aeth. am-c. ars. bell. cann-i. Carb-ac. cic. Cupr-ar. hell. hyos. Morph. Op. pilo. stram. urea

URINARY SYSTEM - Kidneys - Symptoms uraemia – Convulsions bell. carb-ac. chlol. cic. cupr-act. Cupr-ar. glon. Hydr-ac. kali-br. merc-c. op. pilo. plb. verat-v.

URINARY SYSTEM - Kidneys - Symptoms uraemia – Headache arn. cann-i. carb-ac. cupr-ar. Glon. hyper. Sang. zinc-pic.

URINARY SYSTEM - Kidneys - Symptoms uraemia - In general Am-c. apis apoc. ars. asc-c. Bell. cann-i. Canth. Carb-ac. cic. cupr-act. Cupr-ar. Glon. Hell. hydr-ac. hyos. kali-br. Morph. Op. phos. Pic-ac. pilo. queb. ser-ang. stram. Ter. urea urt-u. Verat-v.

URINARY SYSTEM - Kidneys - Symptoms uraemia – Vomiting Ars. iod. kreos. nux-v.

URINE – ALBUMINOUS absin. acetan. acon. adon. alco. all-c. all-s. allox. alum-p. alum. alumn. am-be. Am-c. am-caust. ant-c. Ant-t. antip. APIS apoc. arg-met. Arg-n. arist-cl. Ars-i. ars-s-f. ARS. astac. aur-ar. aur-i. Aur-m-n. AUR-M. aur-s. Aur. bapt. bell. berb. bism. borx. Brach. bry. cain. CALC-AR. calc-i. calc-p. Calc. Cann-s. cann-xyz. Canth. Carb-ac. Carb-v. Carbn-s. carc. caul. chel. Chim. Chin. Chinin-ar. chinin-s. chir-fl. chlol. cinnb. cob. coc-c. coch. Colch. conv. cop. cortiso. Crot-c. Crot-h. cub. cupr-act. cupr-ar. cupr-s. Cupr. Dig. diph-t-tpt. Dulc. equis-h. euon-a. Euon. euonin. eup-pur. faec. Ferr-ar. Ferr-i. Ferr-m. ferr-p. ferr-pic. Ferr. form. fuch. Gels. GLON. HELL. helo. Helon. Hep. Hippoz. Iod. kali-ar. Kali-bi. kali-br. Kali-c. Kali-chl. Kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. kali-s. Kalm. kiss. kreos. LAC-D. lac-v. Lach. lat-h. lat-m. lec. Leptos-ih. lith-c. lon-x. loxo-lae. LYC. lycps-v. mag-m. mang-act. med. mela. MERC-C. Merc-cy. Merc-i-r. Merc. methyl. mez. morph. mur-ac. myric. naphtin. NAT-AR. NAT-C. nat-f. nat-hchls. Nat-m. NAT-P. Nat-s. nat-sal. Nit-ac. nux-v. oci. oena. ol-j. ol-sant. op. osm-ac. osm. ourl. Petr. PH-AC. phase-xyz. Phos. Phyt. Pic-ac. pilo. pip-m. pitu-p. Plb-c. PLB. polyg-h. puls. Pyrog. rad-br. rad-met. RHUS-T. ric. Sabin. sal-ac. samb-c. sars. scarl. Sec. Ser-ang. sil. solid. spartin-s. squil. stann. stigm. Stroph-h. strych-g. sul-ac. sul-i. sulfon. Sulph. Syc. tab. Tarent. tax. TER. thal-xyz. thuj. thymol. thyr. tub-m. tub. uran-met. Uran-n. urea vac. valer. vanad. vesi. visc. zinc-p. zinc. zing.

URINE - SEDIMENT – albuminous adon. apoc. ARS. AUR. Bell. Kali-c. merc-c. oci. sul-ac.

Vomiting – uraemic apoc. ars. samb. scop. senec.

Bibliography

PREGNANCY AND ACUTE RENAL FAILURE" width="36" height="48"> Acute Kidney Injury > PREGNANCY AND ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Principles of Critical Care, 4e... The incidence of AKI complicating pregnancy has been decreasing for the past 25 years. This is attributable to improvements in prenatal care and obstetric science and fewer complications related to septic abortions. The timing of AKI in pregnancy has a bimodal distribution. 111 The early...

SEPSIS-ASSOCIATED AKI" width="37" height="48"> Acute Kidney Injury > SEPSIS-ASSOCIATED AKI Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine... examinations of kidneys from individuals with severe sepsis suggest that other factors, perhaps related to inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and interstitial edema, must be considered in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI. The hemodynamic effects of sepsis—arising from generalized arterial...

Renal Biopsy in AKI" width="37" height="48"> Chapter 246. Acute Kidney Injury > Renal Biopsy in AKI Principles and Practice of Hospital Medicine... in the evaluation of early allograft dysfunction in renal transplant patients, and in management decisions related to subsequent use of immunosuppressive therapy. ...

6. Pregnancy" width="39" height="48"> Hypertension > 6. Pregnancy CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Family Medicine, 4e... Chronic hypertension occurs in ≤5% of pregnant women. It may result in perinatal morbidity and mortality for both mother and baby. It is important to differentiate chronic hypertension from other pregnancy-related conditions, including pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia...

Pregnancy" width="37" height="48"> Medical Disorders During Pregnancy Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine

Encyclopedia Homoeopathica

Radar 10

Pregnancy and Chronic Renal Disease" width="36" height="48"> Renal and Urinary Tract Disorders > Pregnancy and Chronic Renal Disease Williams Obstetrics, 24e ... pregnancy-induced hypervolemia. Blood volume expansion during pregnancy is related to disease severity and correlates inversely with serum creatinine concentration. As shown in Figure 53-5 , women with mild to moderate renal dysfunction have normal blood volume expansion that averages 55 percent...

 

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