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Munchausen's syndrome and Homoeopathy

© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma M.D. (Homoeopathy)

Dr. Deepika Vishwakarma BHMS

Homoeo Cure & Research Institute

NH 74, Moradabad Road, Kashipur (Uttaranchal) INDIA

Pin- 244713 Ph. 05947- 260327, 9897618594

  1. mail- drrajneeshhom@hotmail.com

                    www.treatmenthomeopathy.com

                    www.cureme.org.in

For well formatted and illustrated article, please see attached file....

Munchausen Syndrome and Homoeopathy.pdf

Contents

Definition. 2

Etymology. 2

Signs and Symptoms. 2

Types. 3

Psychological actions. 3

Physical actions. 3

Active performance. 3

Munchausen syndrome by proxy. 3

Causes. 3

Childhood trauma. 4

Personality disorders. 4

Antisocial personality disorder. 4

Borderline personality disorder. 4

Narcissistic personality disorder. 4

Risk factors. 4

Pathophysiology. 5

Lying about symptoms. 5

Tampering with test results. 5

Self-infliction. 5

Aggravating pre-existing conditions. 5

Diagnosis. 5

Differential diagnosis. 6

Hypochondriasis. 6

Malingering. 6

Treatment. 6

Homoeopathic remedies for Munchausen’s syndrome. 6

Short Repertory of Munchausen’s syndrome. 6

Bibliography. 7

 

 

Definition

Munchausen's syndrome is a psychological disorder where someone pretends to be ill (Psora) or deliberately produces symptoms of illness in themselves with a goal to have people care for them and be the center of attention, but not for any practical benefit (Psora/ Syphilis). A person with Munchausen syndrome can be very convincing, which results in doctors providing unnecessary treatment including surgery (Psora/ Syphilis).

Etymology

Named after German aristocrat, Baron Munchausen, famous for telling wild, unbelievable tales about his exploits.

Signs and Symptoms

These may include pretending to be ill or self-harming to aggravate or induce illness (Psora/ Syphilis). A person with Munchausen syndrome gains strong gratification from the attention associated with playing the ill patient or victim (Psora), main signs and symptoms being-

  • An enormous medical history with a large number of tests, medical procedures and operations (Psora)
  • Appeals for invasive medical procedures or surgeries (Psora/ Syphilis)
  • Extensive medical knowledge of many different diseases (Psora)
  • Failure to improve despite medical treatment, including relapses for unknown reasons (Psora)
  • Frequent presentation at emergency departments, usually at different hospitals (Psora)
  • New symptoms that appear after medical tests prove negative (Psora)
  • No conclusive results despite intense medical investigations (Psora)
  • Strange collection of apparently unconnected symptoms (Psora)
  • Visiting many different doctors, sometimes far away (Psora)

Types

Munchausen's syndrome presents in a number of ways-

Psychological actions 

Claiming to hear voices or claiming to see things that are not really there. (Psora)

Physical actions

Claiming to have chest pain or a stomachache etc. (Psora)

Active performance

Such as deliberately infecting a wound by rubbing dirt into it. (Psora/ Syphilis)

People with Munchausen's syndrome can be very manipulative and, in the most serious cases, may undergo painful and sometimes life-threatening surgery, even though they know it is unnecessary. (Psora/ Syphilis)

Munchausen syndrome by proxy

Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MBP) was the term previously used for a rare but serious form of abuse where the person either fakes or produces symptoms in someone else, usually their child. Typically, the care taker deliberately poisons or harms the child to procure unnecessary tests and medical procedures. The most common form of abuse appears to be apnoea. The child may be revived by ambulance officers and taken to hospital, where all tests prove negative. Sometimes the child does not survive the carer-induced apnoea.

Causes

Based on the available research and case studies, several factors have been found behind Munchausen’s syndrome-

Childhood trauma

It may be caused by parental neglect and abandonment, or other childhood trauma (Causa occasionalis). This causes him to have unresolved issues with their parents that cause them to fake illness (Psora/ Syphilis). They may do this because they-

  • Have a compulsion to punish themselves by making themselves ill because they feel them worthless (Syphilis)
  • Need to feel important and be the center of attention (Psora)
  • Need to pass responsibility for their wellbeing and care on to other people (Psora)

This may be because they link their childhood memories with a sense of being cared for (Psora). As they get older, they try to obtain the same feelings of reassurance by pretending to be ill. (Psora/ Syphilis)

Personality disorders

Some examples of the different personality disorders may be linked with Munchausen's syndrome-

Antisocial personality disorder 

A person may take pleasure in manipulating and deceiving doctors, giving them a sense of power and control. (Psora)

Borderline personality disorder 

Where a person struggles to control their feelings and often swings between positive and negative views of others. (Psora)

Narcissistic personality disorder 

Where a person often swings between seeing themselves as special and fearing they are worthless. Playing the sick role allows them to adopt an identity that brings unconditional support and acceptance from others with it. Admission to hospital also gives the person a clearly defined place in a social network. (Psora/ Syphilis)

Risk factors

These may be-

  • Chronic illness during childhood – the person may have received a lot of attention because of their illness (Causa occasionalis)
  • Chronic illness of a significant family member when the person was a child
  • Self-esteem or identity problems (Psora)
  • Relationship problems (Psora)
  • Difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy (Psora)
  • Ability to lie and manipulate (Psora)
  • A history of mental problems such as depression, hallucinations or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Psora/ Syphilis)
  • The need to blame personal failures on external factors, such as illness (Syphilis)

Pathophysiology

A person with Munchausen syndrome may try to convince doctors in many ways-

  • Pretend have pain (Psora)
  • Exaggerate symptoms (Psora)
  • Fake symptoms, including psychological symptoms (Psora)
  • Poison themselves with chemicals (Syphilis)
  • Infect themselves with unclean substances (Syphilis)
  • Tamper with diagnostic tests e.g. contaminate a urine sample with sugar or blood (Psora)
  • Interfere with a medical condition so that recovery is not possible e.g. repeatedly open or contaminate a skin wound or not take prescribed medication (Psora)
  • Ignore a genuine medical problem until it becomes serious (Psora)

There are four main ways people with Munchausen's syndrome fake or induce illnesses-

Lying about symptoms

Like- choosing symptoms that are difficult to disprove, such as having a severe headache or pretending to have a seizure or to pass out etc.

Tampering with test results

Like- heating a thermometer to suggest a fever or adding blood to a urine sample etc.(Psora)

Self-infliction

Like- cutting or burning themselves, poisoning themselves with drugs, or eating food contaminated with bacteria etc. (Psora/ Syphilis)  

Aggravating pre-existing conditions

Like- rubbing faeces into wounds to cause an infection, or reopening previously healed wounds etc. (Psora/ Syphilis)

Diagnosis

It is very difficult to diagnose the patients with Munchausen’s syndrome as they are very convincing and skilled at manipulating and exploiting a doctor's concern for their patients, and their natural interest in investigating unusual medical conditions.

The person's health records of the suspect must be checked for discrepancies between their claimed and actual medical history. The attendant may help in finding actual problems. Evidence of self-inflicted illness or tampering with clinical tests must be analyzed. Moto behind their behavior must be investigated, such as faking illness for financial gain or because they want access to strong painkillers. Munchausen's syndrome is confirmed by-

  • Strong signs of fabricating or inducing symptoms
  • Prime motivation to be seen as sick
  • No other likely reason or explanation for their behavior

Differential diagnosis

Hypochondriasis

Hypochondriasis or health anxiety is a psychiatric disorder where a person has a fear of illness and interprets normal bodily functions, such as sweating, or minor abnormalities, such as aches and pains, as signs of major illness.

Malingering

Malingering is feigning or faking illness intended to gain a material benefit, such as avoiding a duty or obtaining compensation.

Treatment

Main aim is to find out the exact motive behind the syndrome. A proper counselling is needed. If repeated sessions of psychological counselling are uneventful, Homoeopathic treatment is needed.

Homoeopathic remedies for Munchausen’s syndrome

acer-circ. acon. aethyl-act. aethyl. agar. Agath-a. aids. aloe alum. anac. androc. Ant-c. ara-maca. arg-n. ars. asaf. Aur-m-n. Aur-m. aur. bar-c. BELL. Bism. borx. bry. calc-p. calc-sil. CALC. calen. camph. cann-i. carb-an. carb-v. Carc. Caust. cham. chin. choc. coff. colum-p. con. Croc. cupr. cypra-eg. diph. dulc. falco-pe. Flav. Gels. germ-met. graph. HAM. Hell. hura hydr. HYOS. Ign. iod. iodof. irid-met. kali-c. kali-p. Kali-s. kola lac-ac. lac-c. lac-del. Lach. lec. lil-t. limen-b-c. lyc. marb-w. melal-alt. mosch. musca-d. nat-c. Nat-m. nat-s. nat-sil. nit-ac. Nux-m. Nux-v. ol-eur. Olib-sac. op. ox-ac. ozone par. petr-ra. ph-ac. Phos. pin-con. plat. plb. Podo. polys. positr. prot. PULS. rhus-g. rhus-t. ruta sabad. sacch. sal-fr. Sang. seneg. Sep. SIL. Spong. Staph. Stram. sul-ac. Sulph. symph. syph. Tarent. thea Tritic-vg. Tung-met. ulm-c. valer. Vanil. verat. vero-o.

Short Repertory of Munchausen’s syndrome

MIND - ABRUPT - affectionate; rough yet Aur-m. lyc. nat-m. nux-v. podo. PULS.

MIND - AFFECTION - yearning for affection carc. ol-eur. olib-sac. phos.

MIND – AFFECTIONATE acon. agar. Agath-a. aloe alum. anac. Ant-c. ars. Aur-m-n. aur. bar-c. BELL. borx. bry. calc-p. Calc. carb-an. carb-v. carc. Caust. cham. chin. choc. coff. colum-p. Croc. dulc. Flav. graph. HAM. hura hydr. HYOS. Ign. irid-met. Kali-s. kola lac-ac. lac-del. lach. lec. lil-t. limen-b-c. lyc. nat-c. Nat-m. nat-s. nat-sil. nit-ac. Nux-v. Olib-sac. op. ox-ac. par. ph-ac. Phos. plat. podo. positr. PULS. rhus-t. seneg. sep. Sil. Staph. stram. Sulph. symph. thea Tung-met. ulm-c. valer. vanil. verat. vero-o.

MIND - BLINDNESS; pretending verat.

MIND - CARESSED; being - desire to be caressed - children; in puls. sacch.

MIND - CARESSED; being - desire to be caressed ara-maca. cann-i. carc. cypra-eg. marb-w. ol-eur. olib-sac. Podo. sacch. Tritic-vg.

MIND - COMPLAINING - injury; of imaginary Hyos.

MIND - CONSOLATION - amel. - woman; when consoled by a sal-fr.

MIND - CONSOLATION - amel. acer-circ. agar. aids. arg-n. asaf. calc-p. camph. carc. caust. con. cypra-eg. falco-pe. gels. Hell. kali-s. melal-alt. musca-d. Phos. pin-con. prot. PULS. ruta sal-fr. sil. spong. staph. syph. tritic-vg. vanil.

MIND - CONSOLATION - kind words; from Carc.

MIND - CUDDLE - desire to be cuddled sacch.

MIND - DEAFNESS; pretended verat.

MIND - FEIGNING - fainting - paroxysms; in Tarent.

MIND - FEIGNING – fainting tarent.

MIND - FEIGNING – pregnancy verat.

MIND - FEIGNING - sick; to be - children; in aethyl-act. arg-n. bell. ign. lac-c. lach. lyc. Mosch. op. plb. Puls. sabad. sep. sil. syph. tarent. VERAT.

MIND - FEIGNING - sick; to be - shrieking; with ign. verat.

MIND - FEIGNING - sick; to be aethyl. arg-n. bell. calc. ign. kali-c. lach. lyc. mosch. op. petr-ra. plb. Puls. sabad. sep. sil. syph. Tarent. verat.

MIND - HELD - desire to be held Ars. Bism. coff. diph. dulc. Gels. germ-met. iod. iodof. irid-met. kali-p. kola lach. Nux-m. Nux-v. phos. plb. rhus-t. sacch. Sang. Sep. Stram. sul-ac. sulph. vanil.

MIND - KIND people - yearning for olib-sac. Vanil.

MIND - MAGNETIZED - desire to be calc-sil. CALC. cupr. lac-del. Lach. limen-b-c. nat-c. PHOS. podo. polys. SIL. Spong.

MIND - PITIES herself - sick; desire to show being tarent.

MIND - SYMPATHY from others - desire for androc. calen. caust. cypra-eg. Ham. Kali-s. nat-m. nat-sil. ozone PHOS. puls. rhus-g. ruta sep. Spong. vanil.

Bibliography

 Chapter 23 . Factitious Disorders and Malingering > Treatment Issues in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Psychiatry, 2e... When the victim of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is a child, it may be necessary to place the child in foster care in order to protect his or her health and life. The child will require supportive psychological assistance to deal with separation from the parent and changes in his or her environment...

 Chapter 23. Factitious Disorders and Malingering > Munchausen Syndrome (Peregrinating Factitious Disorder) CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Psychiatry, 2e... The original Munchausen syndrome, as first described by Asher in 1951, consists of the simulation of disease, pseudologia fantastica, and peregrination (wandering). Some patients with this disorder have achieved great notoriety. These patients typically present to emergency rooms at night...

 Child Abuse & Neglect > A. History CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics, 23e... is healthy and reinforcing that the child is somehow ill) are also described in the original definition of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. ...

 Child Abuse and Neglect > INTRODUCTION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 8e... abuse and medical child abuse (8%) 1 (previously called Munchausen syndrome by proxy). ...

 Comprehensive Evaluation and Treatment > SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS Poisoning & Drug Overdose, 7e... or neglect: multiple or unusual bruises; a broken bone or burns; a very dirty, unkempt child; or a child with a flat affect or indifferent or inappropriate behavior. A history of repeated episodes of possible or documented poisonings, or a history of prior abuse. Munchausen syndrome by proxy: Drugs...

 Conversations That Haunt Clinicians > Case 4: Somatoform disorders Communication the Cleveland Clinic Way: How to Drive a Relationship-Centered Strategy for Superior Patient Experience... Somatoform disorders are a broad category of mental illness that includes somatization, hypochondriasis, Munchausen syndrome, and conversion disorders. Criteria for diagnosis include age, duration of symptoms, and multiple bodily symptoms in the absence of a causative medical diagnosis...

 Encyclopedia Homoeopathica

 Factitious Disorder > Key Findings Quick Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2017... In factitious disorder imposed on self (formerly Munchausen syndrome) , the deception is carried out by the patient In factitious disorder imposed on another (formerly Munchausen by proxy) , a parent creates an illness in a child so that the parent can maintain a relationship with clinicians Patients...

 Gastrointestinal Tract > Differential Diagnosis CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics, 23e..., diabetes, mitochondrial diseases, disorders of fatty and organic acid metabolism, adrenal insufficiency, and munchausen syndrome by proxy. Although tests for reflux are often positive in these patients, it is unlikely that reflux and CVS are related. ...

 Mental Disorders > SOMATIC SYMPTOM DISORDER Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine... motor or sensory function that cannot be medically explained and that causes significant distress or impairment or requires medical evaluation. In factitious illnesses , the patient consciously and voluntarily produces physical symptoms of illness. The term Munchausen’s syndrome is reserved...

 Mental Health Disorders: ED Evaluation and Disposition > AXIS I: FACTITIOUS DISORDERS Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 8e ... demonstrates a psychological need to be in the sick role without external incentives. Munchausen syndrome is an extreme form of this disorder. Munchausen by proxy, or factitious disorder by proxy, is inducing or fabricating disease in a child to get medical attention. ...

 Psychiatric Disorders > C. Factitious Disorders Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2018... syndrome) . Factitious disorder imposed on another, previously termed “Munchausen by proxy,” is diagnosed when someone (often a parent) creates an illness in another person (often a child) for perceived psychological benefit of the first person, such as sympathy or a relationship with clinicians...

 Psychiatric Disorders > Somatic Symptom Disorder Harrison's Manual of Medicine, 19e...; pts with somatic symptom disorder can be impulsive and demanding. In conversion disorder , the symptoms involve voluntary motor or sensory function In factitious illnesses , the pt consciously and voluntarily produces physical symptoms; the sick role is gratifying. Munchausen’s syndrome refers...

 Respiratory Tract & Mediastinum > A. Symptoms and Signs CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics, 23e... malformation Dysrhythmias Cardiomyopathy Nonaccidental trauma Battering Drug overdose Munchausen syndrome by proxy No definable cause Apnea of infancy Table 19–6 classifies disorders associated with ALTEs. The causes of ALTEs are diverse and multifactorial...

 The Mental Status, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations > Munchausen syndrome DeGowin’s Diagnostic Examination, 10e... Munchausen syndrome is dramatic or dangerous behavior resulting in frequent hospitalizations for presumed severe illness. The most common symptoms and signs simulated are urinary or gastrointestinal bleeding, diarrhea, fever, seizures, and hypoglycemia. ...

Radar 10

 

Views: 50

Comment by dr.t.s.saha on May 28, 2018 at 1:44pm

   Look,any doctor can write it but  but what is your experience?

I  have   got good result with Plumbum met 200 ,  single dose

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