Creating Waves of Awareness
Dr.K.Saji. MD (Hom)
Miasms are the fundamental causes of chronic as well as acute miasmatic diseases. ( Organon, § 5; Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 9, 2nd Para. 1- 35, Footnote. )
They are ‘half–spiritual, parasitic’ ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 35, Footnote. ) ‘excessively minute, invisible, living creatures’ which are capable of multiplication and are so inimical to human life.
Miasms are usually seen in the contagious matter ( miasma ) of a miasmatic disease. In acute miasmatic diseases, the miasma is seen in the local eruption or in the fluids and secretions. In chronic miasmatic diseases, miasma is seen in the primary local eruption.
Miasmatic diseases ( or Miasmata ) are caused by infection with a miasm (Organon § 72)
So, Miasms are Micro Organisms.
“They must therefore all have for their origin and foundation constant chronic miasms, whereby their parasitical existence in the human organism is enabled to continually rise and grow.”( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 9, 2nd Para )
“ the cholera –miasm finds a favorable element for its multiplication, and grows into an enormously increased brood of those excessively minute, invisible, living creatures , so inimical to human life, of which the contagious matter of the cholera most probably consists” ( Appeal to thinking philanthropists respecting the mode of propagation of the Asiatic cholera. - The lesser writings of Samuel Hahnemann by R.E.Dudgeon. Page 851, 3rd Para )
“ Or have these various, acute, half-spiritual miasms the peculiar characteristic that - after they have penetrated the vital force in the first moment of the contagion (and each one in its own way has produced disease) and then, like parasites, have quickly grown up within it and have usually developed themselves by their peculiar fever after producing their fruit (the mature cutaneous eruption which is again capable of producing its miasma) - they again die out and leave the living organism again free to recover? ”( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 35, Footnote. )
“On the other hand, are not the chronic miasmas disease-parasites, which continue to live as long as the man seized by them is alive, and which have their fruit in the eruption originally produced by them (the itch-pustule, the chancre and the fig- wart, which in turn are capable of infecting others), and which do not die off of themselves like the acute miasmas”( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 35, Footnote. )
Disease Classification by Hahnemann :
Eg. A slight alteration in the state of health, manifested by one or more trivial symptoms.
II. Surgical diseases ( Surgical Local maladies )
Eg. Injuries occurring to the body from without.
III. Dynamic Diseases.
1. Based on aetiology
b. Non-Miasmatic.( Mild injuries to the body from without)
2. Based on distribution
Transient explosion of latent psora.
Excess of deficiency of food
Severe physical impressions.
Eg. Inflammation of individual parts.
ii. Non Miasmatic
Eg. Mild injuries to the body from without
b. Sporadic :
c. Epidemic :
a. Based on the basic miasm
Psora + Syphilis
Psora + Sycosis
Psora + Syphilis + Sycosis.
b. Based on the Symptomatology ( Secondary symptoms of the basic miasm )
i. One sided diseases
ii. Local maladies
Non Surgical local maladies
Chronic Sequelae of Surgical local maladies
2. Non-Miasmatic ( Pseudo-Chronic diseases )
a. From bad hygienic conditions of living
b. Drug diseases
c. Occupational diseases.
Classification of Miasms:
They are divided into Acute, Sub-acute and Chronic which leads to Acute, Sub-acute and Chronic miasmatic diseases respectively.
Acute miasms are again divided into Fixed or Permanent miasms and Varying miasms. Fixed miasmatic diseases are again divided into those which appear only once in a life time and those which recur again and again. Acute miasmatic diseases may appear individually, sporadically or epidemically. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 132, Footnote ; Organon § 73 )
Chronic miasms are divided into three – Psora, Syphilis and Sycosis.
1. Classification Based on Symptomatology.
A. Permanent ( Fixed Symptoms and hence a distinct name )
i. Non recurring
Eg. : Chicken pox, Mumps, Measles. etc.
Eg. : Cholera, Plague etc.
B. Varying. ( Varying in their symptomatology each time )
Eg. : Intermittent fevers.
2. Classification Based on distribution
III. Chronic :
Miasmatic diseases :
1. They are infectious in nature. Among the chronic miasms, Psora is the most infectious. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 12, 1st Para. )
2. Infection occurs in a ‘moment favorable for infection’. That means infection is conditional. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 33, 2nd Para. )
3. There are three points to be considered, with respect to the origin of a miasmatic disease. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 33, 1st Para. )
a. The moment of infection
b. The incubation period
c. The breaking out of the external ailment.
4. In Chronic miasmatic diseases, external manifestation is through primary and secondary symptoms.
5. Primary symptom is the local manifestation
a. Itch in psora
b. Chancre in Syphilis
c. Condylomata in Sycosis.
6. Secondary symptoms appear from the suppression of the primary eruption.
a. Psora - All the various forms of non-veneral diseases
b. Syphilis - Syphilis and its sequelae.
c. Sycosis - Sycosis and its sequelae.
7. In chronic miasmatic diseases, the entire internal disease remains in the organism during the whole life unless cured by a specific homoeopathic remedy.
8. If the local eruption is not removed it will increase with the years and persist for life but will prevent the further development of the disease and does not permit the secondary symptoms to break out, so long as it remains undisturbed in its place. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 87, 6th Para. )
9. The Origin of the veneral miasmatic disease Syphilis occurs due to impure coition. The specific contagion infects the body and spreads the disease within before producing the veneral chancre which is again capable of spreading the disease to another person by sexual contact or by contact of miasma on an injured spot. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 35,36 )
10. Seven-eighths of all the chronic maladies ( i.e, all chronic diseases except the two veneral chronic diseases. ) are originated from psora. The remaining eighth originates from syphilis, sycosis or a combination of two chronic miasm or a very rare combination of all the three chronic miasms. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 14, 1st Para. )
11. Bodily constitution and others factors determines or modifies the secondary symptoms of the miasmatic disease. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 77, Last Para. )
Examples of Psoric Chronic diseases. ( Secondary symptoms of Psora )
“ Scrofula, rickets, spina ventosa, atrophy, marasmus, consumption, pulmonary consumption , asthma, tabes mucosa, laryngeal phthisis, chronic catarrh, constant coryza, difficult dentition, worms and consequent diseases, dyspepsia, abdominal cramps, hypochondria, hysteria, dropsy, dropsy of the abdomen, dropsy of the ovaries, of the uterus, hydrocele, hydrocephalus, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhages, hematemesis, hemoptysis and hemorrhages, vaginal hemorrhages, dysuria, ischuria, enuresis, diabetes, catarrh of the bladder, hematuria, nephralgia, gravel of the kidneys, stricture of the urethra, stricture of the intestines, blind and running piles, fistula of the rectum, difficult stools, constipation, chronic diarrhoea, induration of the liver, jaundice, cyanosis, heart diseases, palpitation, spasms of the chest, dropsy of the chest, abortion, sterility, metromania, impotence, induration of the testicles, dwindling of the testicles, prolapsus uteri, inversion of the womb, inguinal, femoral and umbilical hernias, dislocations of the joints from an internal cause, curvature of the spine, chronic inflammation of the eyes, fistula lachrymalis, short-sightedness and long-sightedness, day blindness and night blindness, obscuration of the cornea, cataracts, glaucoma, amaurosis, deafness, deficient smell or taste, chronic one-sided headache, megrim, tic douloureux, tinea capitis, scab, crusta lactea, tetters (herpes), pimples, nettlerash, encysted tumors, goitre, varices, aneurism, erysipelas, sarcomas, osteosarcoma, scirrhus, cancer of the lips, cheeks, breast, uterus, fungus hematodes, rheumatism, gout in the hips, knotty gout, podagra, apoplectic fits, swoons, vertigo, paralysis, contractions, tetanus, convulsions, epilepsy, St. Vitus' dance, melancholy, insanity, imbecility, nervous debility, etc.” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 78, Footnote )
“With respect to the origin of these three chronic maladies, as in the acute, miasmatic eruptional diseases, three different important moments are to be more attentively considered than has hitherto been done: First, the time of infection; secondly, the period of time during which the whole organism is being penetrated by the disease infused, until it has developed within; and thirdly, the breaking out of the external ailment, whereby nature externally demonstrates the completion of the internal development of the miasmatic malady throughout the whole organism.” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 33, 1st Para. )
“at least seven-eighths of all the chronic maladies spring from it as their only source, while the remaining eighth springs from syphilis and sycosis or from a complication of two of these three miasmatic chronic diseases, or (which is rare) from a complication of all three of them” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 14, 1st Para. )
.“the great truth is established that all chronic ailments, all great, and the greatest, long continuing diseases (excepting the few venereal ones) spring from Psora alone” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 118, 4th Para. )
“They are at the same time the elements, from which (under unfavourable external conditions) the itch-malady, as it manifests itself, composes the illimitable number of chronic diseases, and with one man assumes the one form, with another another, according to the bodily constitution, defects in the education, habits, employment and external circumstances, as also modified by the various psychical and physical impressions.” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 77, Last Para. )
Grouping of symptoms under Psora, Syphilis and Sycosis. :
1. The symptoms grouped under different miasms by Hahnemann are actually symptoms collected from many patients with the same miasmatic chronic disease. The symptoms observed on patients suffering from syphilis were grouped under Syphilitic miasm, and symptoms of condylomatous gonorrhoea patients were grouped under Sycotic miasm. Symptoms of very many Psoric patients were collected and grouped under Psoric miasm. ( Organon § 103.)
2. The grouped symptoms are for the selection of the medicine and not for the identification of the ‘active’ or ‘predominant’ miasm. The miasm behind a chronic disease is identified with the history of its primary local eruption ( veneral chancre, condylomata, or itch ) ( The lesser writings of Samuel Hahnemann – Two cases from Hahnemann’s Notebook, Case II, Page 871 ; Kent’s Lesser writings – Syphilis as a miasm Page 367. )
3. The grouping thus becomes irrelevant in this era as syphilis and sycosis are met very rarely.
“one patient only exhibits a portion of their symptoms, a second, a third, and so on, present some other symptoms, which also are but portion of the totality of the symptoms which constitute the entire extent of this malady, so that the whole array of the symptoms belonging to such a miasmatic,chronic disease, and especially to the psora, can only be ascertained from the observation of very many single patients affected with such a chronic disease, and without a complete survey and collective picture of these symptoms the medicines capable of curing the whole malady homoeopathically (to wit, the antipsorics) cannot be discovered; and these medicines are, at the same time, the true remedies of the several patients suffering from such chronic affections.” ( Organon § 103.)
“He confessed having had a chancre eight years previously, which had. been, as usual, destroyed by caustics, after which all the above affections had appeared.” ( The lesser writings of Samuel Hahnemann – Two cases from Hahnemann’s Notebook, Case II, Page 871 )
Clinical presentation of miasms in individual cases :
Psora + Syphilis
Psora + Sycosis
Psora + Syphilis + Sycosis
Hahnemann says presentation of all the three miasms in an individual case is very rare and he observed only two such cases in his life time. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 94,95. ) ( We can easily understand that fact – Syphilis, Gonorrhoea and a Psoric eruption, asthma or any such disease listed under psora in combination in a single patient will be a very rare phenomena )
“I have, in my practice, found only two cases of the threefold complication of the three chronic miasms, the fig-wart disease with the venereal chancre miasm and at the same time a developed Psora.” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 94,95. )
Clinical application of Miasmatic theory: The Miasmatic totality.
1. In essence miasmatic theory is ‘viewing the disease in a broader sense’.
2. In miasmatic diseases, the presenting totality is incomplete and is just a fragment of the whole disease picture.
3. Clinically, in chronic diseases, while taking the case we have to consider ‘the most significant points in the whole history of the disease’ on an attempt to grasp the picture of the entire disease and the underlying chronic miasm. ( Organon § 5 )
4. Prescription based on presenting totality gives only temporary relief and to achieve permanent relief medicine selection should be on the basis of Miasmatic totality ie., Presenting totality plus the most significant symptoms in disease history.
“It was a continually repeated fact that the non-venereal chronic diseases, after being time and again removed Homoeopathically by the remedies fully proved up to the present time, always returned in a more or less varied form and with new symptoms, or reappeared annually with an increase of complaints. This fact gave me the first clew that the Homoeopathic physician with such a chronic (non-venereal) case, yea, in all cases of (non-venereal) chronic disease, has not only to combat the disease presented before his eyes, and must not view and treat it as if it were a well-defined disease, to be speedily and permanently destroyed and healed by ordinary Homoeopathic remedies, but that he has always to encounter only some separate fragment of a more deep-seated original disease.
The great extent of this disease is shown in the new symptoms appearing from time to time ; so that the Homoeopathic physician must not hope to permanently heal the separate manifestations of this kind in the presumption, hitherto entertained, that they are well-defined, separately existing diseases which can be healed permanently and completely. He therefore must first find out as far as possible the whole extent of all the accidents and symptoms belonging to the unknown primitive malady before he can hope to discover one or more medicines which may Homoeopathically cover the whole of the original disease by means of its peculiar symptoms. By this method he may then be able victoriously to heal and wipe out the malady in its whole extent, consequently also its separate members ; that is, all the fragments of a disease appearing in so many various forms.” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 5, Last Para; 6, 1st Para. )
“as also the most significant points in the whole history of the chronic disease, to enable him to discover its fundamental cause, which is generally due to a chronic miasm.” ( Organon § 5 )
Treatment of Miasmatic diseases :
Before commencing the treatment of a chronic disease, we should investigate whether the patient had had a veneral infection for then the treatment must be directed towards this alone, if only symptoms of either of the two ( Syphilis or Gonorrhoea ) are present. ( Organon § 206 )
Medicinal Treatment :
1. If the case is a pure syphilitic case, with the history of veneral chancre, treat Syphilis with its specific medicine.
2. If the case is a pure sycotic case with the history of veneral condylomata, treat Sycosis with its specific medicine.
3. If the case is a pure psoric case with or without the history of itch, treat Psora with one of the antipsoric medicines.
4. If the case is a combination of psora and syphilis or psora and sycosis or psora, syphilis and sycosis, then treat psora first, with one of the antipsoric medicines. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 95. )
Cure is easily possible even in psora, if the primary eruption is not suppressed
Syphilis : Mercury ( Kent is against this Opinion )
Sycosis : Thuja and Nitric acid in alternation
Psora : Agar, Alum, Am-carb, Am-mur, Anac, Ant-c, Ars, Aur, Aur-mur, Bar-c, Bor, Calc-c, Carb-an, Carb-v, Caust, Clem, Coloc, Con, Cupr, Dig, Dulc, Euph, Graph, Guaj, Hepar, Iod, Kali-c, Lyc, Mag carb, Mag mur, Manganum, Mez, Mur-ac, Nat-carb, Nat-mur, Nit-ac, Nitrum, Petr, Phos, Ph-ac, Plat, Sars, Sep, Sil, Stann, Sulph, Sulph-ac, Zinc.
“Before commencing the treatment of a chronic disease, it is necessary to make the most careful investigation as to whether the patient has had a venereal infection (or an infection with condylomatons gonorrhoea); for then the treatment must Idc directed towards this alone, when only the signs of syphilis (or of the rarer condylomatous disease) are present” ( Organon § 206 )
“the Psora was treated first, then the one of the other two chronic miasmata, the symptoms of which were at the time the most prominent, and then the last one” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 95. )
.“so long as the original eruption is still present on the skin so as to assuage the internal malady, the entire disease of the Psora may be cured most easily, quickly and surely.” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 98, 2nd Para. )
Controversial Opinions on Miasm and Miasm theory:
A. “Miasms are predispositions or diathesis.” ( Opinion by Thomas P Paschero-Notes on the miasms – Ortega )
1. Terms like ‘infectious’ ‘living’, ‘parasitic’, ‘excessively minute creatures’ etc. are not applicable to predisposition and diathesis.
2. Hahnemann mentions about predisposition to a miasm. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 37, 3rd Para. ) Is it predisposition to a predisposition ?
3. The only predisposition is that psoric miasmata, deranges the body to such a state in its latent state, that the organism is more susceptible to acute diseases, especially acute individual diseases and the sequelae of acute diseases remains long in such individuals.
“The disposition of being affected with the miasma of the itch is found with almost everyone and under almost all circumstances, which is not the case with the other two miasmata” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 37, 3rd Para. )
B. “Chronic miasm occurs because of the suppression of the primary local eruption.” ( Chronic disease, its cause and cure – P.N.Banerjee )
Suppression of the local manifestations of the miasmatic diseases results in production of the secondary symptoms of the miasm.
“But when by the destruction of this original cutaneous eruption, which acts vicariously for the internal malady, it has been robbed then the Psora is put in the unnatural position of dominating in a merely one-sided manner the internal finer parts of the whole organism, and thus of being compelled to develop its secondary symptoms” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 98, 1st Para. )
C. “Psora = Inflammation, Sycosis = Proliferation and Syphilis = Ulceration” ( The End of Myasmtion of Miasms – Dr Prafull Vijayakar )
1. Once again something infectious, living and excessively minute cannot be ‘equal to’ inflammation, proliferation or ulceration.
2. Hahnemann says initially psora was the only miasm in the world ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 11, 1st Para ) does that mean only inflammation was there without ulceration and proliferation ?
3. The list of diseases given under psora by Hahnemann tells us clearly that it has nothing to do with such a classification. We can see cancer, encysted tumors, hernias, haemorrhoids, renal calculus, fistula, gout, chronic inflammation etc under psora. ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 78, Footnote.)
D. “Psora is ‘Deficiency’, Sycosis is ‘Excess’ and Syphilis is ‘Perversion’.” ( Opinion by Higinio G Perez - Notes on the miasms – Ortega )
1. This too is an absurd thought very similar to the above.
E. “Syphilitic symptoms are to be treated first in a case with a trimiasmatic combination.”
1. According to Hahnemann, if syphilitic or sycotic miasm is found in combination with psora, then we should first give an antipsoric remedy. He never tells us to treat syphilis first.
2. Considering ulcerative symptoms first as acute totality may be a choice in acute exacerbation of a chronic disease but it has nothing to do with the miasmatic theory.
“the Psora was treated first, then the one of the other two chronic miasmata, the symptoms of which were at the time the most prominent, and then the last one” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 95. )
F. “The system which is not already Psoric cannot receive Sycosis and Syphilis”
If it is true, then what is Pure Syphilis and Pure Sycosis ?
G. “The process of miasm is from the surface to the interior, from the circumference to the centre, from the body to the mind.”
Hahnemann tells us the contrary – “external local eruption appear only after the complete development of the internal disease.”
H. “Psora is hereditary”
This is a misinterpretation of certain sentences in Hahnemann’s literature. He says the psoric miasm ( the micro organism ) has increased its virulence passing through hundreds of generations.
“The fact that this extremely ancient infecting agent has gradually passed, in some hundreds of generations, through many millions of human organisms and has thus attained an incredible development, renders it in some measure conceivable how it can now display such innumerable morbid forms in the great family of mankind, particularly when we consider what a number of circumstances contribute to the production of these great varieties of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora)” ( Organon § 81 )
“Hahnemann’s psora theory was a recognition of the hereditary nature of many diseases, and they would make it appear that Hahnemann speaks of the psoric taint being transmitted from parent to child, whereas nothing can be farther from Hahnemann’s statements. Not only does he never in any place speak of hereditary diseases, but he distinctly alleges that every person affected with a non-veneral chronic disease, must at one period of his life, have had the itch at one time or another, however slightly; and he argues in a most vicious circle on this point.” (Lectures on the theory and practice of Homoeopathy – R.E Dudgeon. Page 294 )
I. “Psora is the mother of all acute as well as chronic diseases.”
That too is an incomplete statement from Hahnemann’s literature which when read in the complete form differs much in the meaning. He never tells us it is the mother of ‘all’ acute and ‘all’ chronic diseases.
“and which during the last centuries has become the mother of all the thousands of incredibly various (acute and) chronic (non-venereal) diseases ” ( Hahnemann’s Chronic diseases – 1- 9. 3rd Para. )
Wrong statements by Hahnemann :
1. Miasmatic infection occurs only through primary eruption
2. Miasm infection is received by the nerves of the organism.
3. Secondary symptoms of a chronic miasm occurs only from suppression of the primary local eruption.
Scope of the theory in the present and future.
Applying the same methodology, we can list the symptoms of almost all of the chronic and acute diseases so that we will get a precise group of specific remedies.
1. Miasms are micro organisms.
2. The organism behind psora is just an assumption or it is yet to be identified.
3. The miasm behind a chronic disease is identified by the presence of the primary local eruption in the disease history. Identification of miasm is irrelevant in this era as syphilis and gonorrhoea cases are very rare.
4. The clinical application of miasm is considering the miasmatic totality in medicine selection which is the combination of presenting totality and the most significant points in the whole history of the disease.
5. Classification of medicines into antipsoric, antisycotic and antisyphilitic is an absurdity.
6. There is scope for definition of new chronic miasms in this era other than Psora, Syphilis and Sycosis.
1. The chronic diseases, their peculiar nature and their homoeopathic cure. – Samuel Hahnemann. Vol 1 and 2 . Jain Publishing Co. Reprint 1983.
2. The Lesser Writings of Samuel Hahnemann – Collected and translated by R.E.Dudgeon . IBPS.
3. Organon of Medicine, by Samuel Hahnemann with An introduction and commentary on the text by B.K.Sarkar. – M Battacharya and Co. 8th Indian edition 1984. , Reprint 1987.
4. Chronic Disease its cause and cure by P.N. Banerjee
5. Notes on the miasms by Dr. Proceso Sanchez Ortega – National Homoeopathic Pharmacy., First English Edition, 1980.
6. A Comparison of the chronic miasms by Phyllis speight. – B Jain Publishers., Reprint edition 1998.
7. Hahnemann’s conception of chronic diseases, as by parasitic micro-organisms. By Dr.M.L.Tyler. IBPS,
8. The End of myasmtion of miasms by Dr Prafull Vijayakar. Hrissha Publications, Reprint 2011.
9. Hering’s Model Cures – Compiled by Dr.Sapuran Singh. B Jain Publishers. Reprint 1987.
10. Lectures on the theory and practice of Homoeopathy – R.E.Dudgeon. MD. – Jain Publishing Co. First Indian Print 1978.
11. Kent’s New Remedies, Clinical Cases, Lesser writings, Aphorisms and Precepts. – J.T.Kent A.M. MD, - B.Jain Publishers. Reprint Edition 1992.