Creating Waves of Awareness
Hydrocephalus and Homoeopathy
© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma MD (Homoeopathy)
Dr. Swati Vishnoi BHMS
Dr. Preetika Lakhera BHMS
Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Daud BHMS
Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Amir BHMS
Dr. Vaishnavi Rathore BHMS
For well formatted and illustrated article, please see attached file-
Production of CSF. 3
Flow of CSF. 3
Reabsorption of CSF. 4
Functions of CSF. 4
Elevated pressure hydrocephalus. 5
Communicating or non-obstructive hydrocephalus. 5
Non-communicating or obstructive hydrocephalus. 5
Normal pressure hydrocephalus. 6
Infantile hydrocephalus. 6
Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. 6
Post-infectious hydrocephalus. 6
Hydrocephalus associated with MMC. 6
Hydrocephalus associated with brain tumors. 6
Signs and Symptoms. 6
Signs and symptoms of elevated-pressure hydrocephalus. 6
Signs and symptoms of normal-pressure hydrocephalus. 7
Motor function. 7
Other associated problems. 8
Special problems in children with MMC. 8
Computed tomography (CT). 8
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 8
CSF Shunt. 9
Homoeopathic remedies for Hydrocephalus. 9
Short repertory of Hydrocephalus. 10
Hydrocephalus is a clinical entity in which a disturbance in the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (Psora) causes the accumulation of intraventricular CSF, resulting in progressive ventricular dilation, characterized by increased intracranial pressure, increased CSF volume and the dilation of the CSF spaces (Sycosis).
Hydrocephalus has a variety of causes including:
Mechanism of CSF production and its flow runs as below-
The physiological mechanism underlying hydrocephalus is-
The ventricular expansion displaces the surface of the brain and compresses the cortical veins, leading to venous congestion and a subsequent increase in ICP. The expansion of the ventricles also affects the surrounding brain structures and the increase in ICP may cause cerebral edema affecting the white matter and eventually also the grey matter.
Many maturational processes are affected in a negative way. These include-
Hydrocephalus can be classified into two forms-
An obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct (aqueductal stenosis) is the most frequent cause of congenital hydrocephalus. (Syphilis)
Acquired hydrocephalus may result from spina bifida, intraventricular hemorrhage, meningitis, head trauma, tumors, and cysts. (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
Other way of classification keeps hydrocephalus in two headings-
This type of hydrocephalus leads to an elevation of the CSF pressure within the brain. This increased pressure pushes aside the soft tissues of the brain and squeezes or distorts them, causing damage to these tissues. (Psora/ Sycosis)
In infants whose skull bones have not yet fused, the intracranial pressure is partly relieved by expansion of the skull, so that symptoms may not be as dramatic. This type of elevated-pressure hydrocephalus may occur from infancy to adulthood and may be of two types-
Whenever, there is a reduction in the absorption rate, caused by damage to the absorptive tissue, the ventricles get turgid and the condition is called communicating or non-obstructive hydrocephalus. (Psora/ Syphilis)
This is the most common variety. There is a free flow of CSF from the ventricles through the aqueduct and foramina to the spinal compartment. In this case, reduced absorption occurs when one or more passages connecting the ventricles become blocked. This prevents the movement of CSF to its drainage sites in the subarachnoid space just inside the skull. (Psora/ Syphilis)
Thus, obstructive hydrocephalus is developed by the processes restricting the intraventricular CSF flow leading to an increased amount of CSF not being absorbed and resulting in enlarged ventricles.
Dandy says that almost every kind of hydrocephalus could be called obstructive, as it is the CSF absorption that is obstructed in communicating hydrocephalus.
Several mechanisms lead to the obstruction of the CSF flow-
It is marked by ventricle enlargement without an apparent increase in CSF pressure and affects mainly the elderly.
Other classification of hydrocephalus may be as below-
This type of hydrocephalus is not associated with myelomeningocele (MMC) or with malignant tumors and developing during the first year of life. Different malformations such as Dandy-Walker, X-linked hydrocephalus, arachnoidal cysts and aqueductal stenosis belong to this group. (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
Arachnoiditis is caused by the blood and hemorrhagic debris in the ventricles that most often obliterates the posterior fossa or the aqueduct of Sylvius. (Psora/ Sycosis)
Obstructions in various parts of the CSF pathways by infections and scarring may result in increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
Several factors are important for the pathogenesis of this type of hydrocephalus-
Hydrocephalus may be associated with malignant tumors in the posterior fossa. (Psora/ Syphilis/ Sycosis)
Irritability is the most common sign of hydrocephalus in infants. If this is not treated, it may lead to lethargy.
Bulging of the fontanelles, or the soft spots between the skull bones, may also be an early sign. When hydrocephalus occurs in infants, fusion of the skull bones is prevented. This leads to abnormal expansion of the skull.
Hydrocephalus is a complex disorder with a significant impact on the brain not only macroscopically but also it affects the physiology, biochemistry and on the ultrastructure of the brain.
The macroscopic changes lead to the distortion of structures, such as the compression of white and grey matter, causing compression of cerebral blood vessels leading to reduction of the cerebral blood perfusion. These changes are important for the severity of the consequences of hydrocephalus. The outcome of hydrocephalus may be-
Children with MMC have a complex situation and as a consequence of the spinal lesion, they have a variety of problems apart from the hydrocephalus-
The primary diagnosis is made by looking at size of head and by case taking thoroughly. The hydrocephalus is easy to diagnose.
Its diagnosis is based on the analysis of the size of the ventricles. The ventricles can also be enlarged due to atrophy of the brain and this condition has to be distinguished from hydrocephalus.
In infants with open sutures, the diagnosis can be made clinically by measuring an increase in head circumference. In older children with closed sutures, there is a compression of the peripheral CSF spaces, which can be confirmed by neuroimaging.
This is the screening procedure in small children when the anterior fontanel is still open. It can also be useful for follow-up after treatment to check the ventricular size.
CT is excellent for analyzing the sizes of the ventricles and, when the ventricles are enlarged, to distinguish hydrocephalus from atrophy.
After shunting, a CT scan is often sufficient as a follow-up investigation.
This is the best way and to some extent, it can also visualize the CSF flow to investigate the patency of the aqueduct or after ETV.
The insertion of a CSF shunt is a common procedure. The equipment that is used is a proximal catheter, which usually has several openings. The catheter is placed in the ventricle that is going to be drained. Shunts often fail because the catheter is occluded by some tissue.
The principle is to perform a stoma in the bottom of the third ventricle and from there lead the CSF to the subarachnoid spaces where it can be re-absorbed.
Since hydrocephalus affects the higher centers of an individual, the entire organism is affected. The only way of treatment becomes the holistic one. If studied carefully and logically, the similimum remedy can be found and the case may be cured easily. Of course, the causa ocassionalis or maintaining cause is to be removed first.
The following Homoeopathic remedies are wonderful in curing hydrocephalus, but if used as per laws of Homoeopathy-
abrot. acon. agar. am-c. APIS apoc. Arg-n. Arn. ars-i. Ars. Art-v. atro-s. aur-ar. aur-s. Aur. Bac. bar-c. bell. Bism. Bry. cadm-s. calc-i. Calc-p. calc-sil. CALC. CAMPH. canth. Carb-ac. caust. Chin. chinin-s. Cina Clem. coloc. Con. crot-h. cupr-act. cupr. cypr. cyt-l. Dig. ferr-i. Ferr. galv. gels. Grat. hed. Hell. Hyos. ign. indg. Iod. iodof. Ip. kali-br. Kali-i. kali-p. lach. LYC. mag-m. Merc. Nat-m. nux-v. oeno. Op. ph-ac. Phos. plat. podo. Puls. rhus-t. samb. sep. SIL. sol-ni. spig. squil. Stram. Sulph. thuj. toxo-g. tub. verat-v. Verat. viol-t. zinc-br. Zinc-m. Zinc.
FACE - COLDNESS - hydrocephalus, in agar. arg-n. CAMPH. hell. Lyc. Verat.
GENERALS - CONVULSIONS - hydrocephalus; with Arg-n. Art-v. bell. Calc. hell. Kali-i. Merc. Nat-m. Stram. Sulph. Zinc.
GENERALS - HISTORY; personal - hydrocephalic children; of delivering calc-p.
HEAD – HYDROCEPHALOID phos. Zinc.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - accompanied by - blindnessapoc.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - accompanied by - Neck; emaciated calc-p.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - accompanied by - weakness; general sil.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - acute - measles; after merc.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS – acute apoc. cupr. cyt-l. hell. merc. op.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - beginning stage toxo-g.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - cholera; after - children; in zinc.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS – chronic art-v. calc-i. calc-p. hed. kali-i. op. zinc.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - diarrhea agg.; after - children; in zinc.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - diarrhea agg.; after - long, exhausting diarrhea cypr.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS – edematous hell.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - lies with head low apis merc. sulph. zinc.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - meningitis; after apis sol-ni. sulph. tub.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - perspiration; with merc.
HEAD - HYDROCEPHALUS - scarlatina; after apis merc.
HEAD – HYDROCEPHALUS abrot. acon. am-c. APIS apoc. arg-n. Arn. ars-i. Ars. art-v. atro-s. aur-ar. aur-s. Aur. Bac. bar-c. bell. Bism. Bry. cadm-s. calc-i. Calc-p. calc-sil. CALC. canth. carb-ac. caust. Chin. chinin-s. cina coloc. Con. crot-h. cupr-act. cupr. cypr. cyt-l. Dig. ferr-i. Ferr. galv. gels. grat. Hell. Hyos. ign. indg. Iod. iodof. Ip. kali-br. Kali-i. kali-p. lach. LYC. mag-m. Merc. Nat-m. nux-v. oeno. Op. ph-ac. Phos. plat. podo. Puls. rhus-t. samb. sep. SIL. sol-ni. spig. squil. Stram. Sulph. thuj. toxo-g. tub. verat-v. verat. viol-t. zinc-br. Zinc-m. zinc.
MIND - EXCITEMENT - hydrocephalus, in Apis Carb-ac.
MIND - FEAR - hydrocephalus, in Zinc.
MIND - SHRIEKING - hydrocephalus, in APIS Cina Dig. kali-i. Lyc. merc. Zinc.
MIND - STUPOR - hydrocephalus, in APIS Apoc. Clem. Hell. Hyos. Lyc. Nat-m.
MIND - UNCONSCIOUSNESS - hydrocephalus, in APIS apoc. art-v. Clem. Grat. Hell. Hyos. Lyc. Nat-m.
RECTUM - DIARRHEA - hydrocephalus acutus, during Apis bell. Calc. Carb-ac. Hell. Zinc.
URINE - MILKY - hydrocephalus; in - little but frequent discharges of milky urine; with very - unconsciousness and delirium; with APIS
URINE - MILKY - hydrocephalus; in Apis
INTRODUCTION" Atlas of Clinical Manifestations of Metabolic Diseases > INTRODUCTION Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine..., at which time he had developmental delay, hepatomegaly, and skeletal involvement. At the time of the picture, the patient had short stature, an enlarged tongue, persistent nasal discharge, stiff joints, and hydrocephalus. Verbal language skills consisted of four or five words. The patient had a severe...
Clinical Manifestations" Cestode Infections > Clinical Manifestations Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine... FIGURE 260-1 Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium. Neurologic infection can be classified on the basis of the location and viability of the parasites. When the parasites are in the ventricles, they often cause obstructive hydrocephalus. Left: Magnetic resonance imaging...
Acute Hydrocephalus" Chapter 17. Coma and Related Disorders of Consciousness > Acute Hydrocephalus Adams & Victor's Principles of Neurology, 10e... The syndrome of acute hydrocephalus, most often from subarachnoid hemorrhage or from obstruction of the ventricular system by a tumor in the posterior fossa, induces a state of abulia (slowed responsivity), followed by stupor, and then coma with bilateral Babinski signs. The pupils are small...
Hydrocephalus" Chapter 232. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus The Color Atlas of Family Medicine, 2e
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Hydrocephalus" Chapter 34. Cerebrovascular Diseases > Hydrocephalus Adams & Victor's Principles of neurology, 10e... If a large amount of blood ruptures into the ventricular system or floods the basal subarachnoid space, it may find its way into the ventricles through the foramina of Luschka and Magendie. The patient then becomes confused or unconscious as a result of acute hydrocephalus . The clinical signs...
Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus" Chapter 35. Craniocerebral Trauma > Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus Adams & Victor's principles of Neurology, 10e... This is an uncommon complication, but one that is frequently imputed to severe head injury. It conforms to the category of normal pressure hydrocephalus, as discussed in Chap. 30 . Intermittent headaches, vomiting, confusion, and drowsiness are the initial manifestations. Later on, mental...
Hydrocephalus" Neurosurgery > Hydrocephalus Schwartz's Principles of Surgery, 10e... (contrast to Fig. 42-2 ). The patient had normal-pressure hydrocephalus and had improved ambulation after placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. B . Higher cut from same scan showing ventricular catheter in place in the frontal horn of the right lateral ventricle. Figure 42-33...
Hydrocephalus " Pathology of the Nervous System > Hydrocephalus Pathology: A Modern Case Study... TABLE 21-2 Common causes of hydrocephalus. Aqueductal stenosis —may result from a congenitally malformed cerebral aqueduct or from an acquired stenosis Dandy–Walker malformation —a hindbrain malformation defined by the triad of (1) hypoplasia of the cerebellar...
D. Hydrocephalus" Stroke Rehabilitation > D. Hydrocephalus CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation ... Hydrocephalus is an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles or subarachnoid space, or both, and often complicates subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). IVH, in particular, can lead to arachnoiditis from...
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