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Epistaxis and Homoeopathy

©         Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma MD (Homoeopathy)

For well formatted article with images, pl. see attached file....

Epistaxis (from Greek: ἐπιστάζω epistazo, "to bleed from the nose" from ἐπί epi, "above, over" and στάζω stazo, "to drip [from the nostrils]"). Epistaxis is defined as bleeding from the nostril, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx.

There are two categories of epistaxis patients. First group is having multiple minor episodes and the second of who have a single severe prolonged episode that will not stop. The former patient usually is a child or young adult with anterior septal bleeding. The latter patient is an older adult with a posterior origin of bleeding and underlying medical problems.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Epistaxis occurs more commonly in males and older patients. Also, epistaxis is more common in the colder months of the year, suggesting a link with decreased ambient humidity and the higher incidence of upper respiratory infections.

Causes

LOCAL CAUSES

Mechanical or traumatic causes

1-     Acute or chronic nasal trauma, with or without nasal fracture (Causa occasionalis)

2-     Extensive facial or head trauma or ruptured aneurysm (Causa occasionalis)

3-     Bleeding after septorhinoplasty, endoscopic sinus operations, or turbinate resection (Causa occasionalis)

4-     Nasal intubations (Causa occasionalis)

5-     Habitual nose rubbing and picking (Causa occasionalis/ Psora/ Pseudopsora)

6-     Topical steroid nasal sprays may produce nasal irritation and epistaxis (Causa occasionalis)

7-     Chronic cocaine abuse may produce tissue necrosis, crusting, and bleeding (Causa occasionalis)

Septal deformity

1-     Septal deflections and spurs also may produce nasal dryness, crusting, and subsequent epistaxis. (Psora/ Sycosis)

2-     Septal perforations are a frequent source of chronic epistaxis. The edges of the perforation are subject to drying and crusting, resulting in friable mucosal edges and recurrent bleeding episodes. (Sycosis/ Syphilis)

Inflammatory disease

1-     Inflammation of the nasal mucosa (Psora/ Sycosis)

2-     Irritant or toxic inhalants (Causa occasionalis)

Tumors

1-     Benign and malignant neoplasms of the nose, sinuses and nasopharynx especially angiofibromas (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis)

Aneurysms

1-     Intracavernous aneurysms of the internal carotid artery may be posttraumatic or nontraumatic in origin (Psora/ Sycosis)

2-     Posttraumatic aneurysms more commonly cause epistaxis (Causa occasionalis)

SYSTEMIC CAUSES

Coagulation deficits

1-     Congenital or acquired coagulopathies (Syphilis)

2-     von Willebrand’s disease is one of the most common congenital bleeding disorders, with epistaxis a frequent feature (Syphilis)

3-     Acquired coagulopathies may be drug- or disease-mediated. Numerous medications affect coagulation as their intended therapeutic effect or as a side effect (Causa occasionalis)

4-     Vitamin K deficiency as a result of diet, disease, or medications may produce severe or fatal bleeding (Causa occasionalis)

5-     Liver disease is a common cause of impaired coagulation, with reduced levels of all coagulation factors except factor VIII (Psora/ Syphilis)

6-     In the absence of liver disease, alcohol may be a factor in those with epistaxis. (Psora/ Syphilis)

Arteriosclerotic vascular disease

1-     Arteriosclerotic vascular disease is a possible explanation for the higher incidence of nosebleeds seen in aged (Psora/ Sycosis)

2-     Hypertension often is noted in the older patient with epistaxis (Psora/ Sycosis)

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

1-     Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu disease) is an autosomal dominant disease manifested by diffuse mucocutaneous telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations (Syphilis/ Pseudopsora)

2-     The angiodysplasia of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia affects vessels from capillaries to large arteries, producing telangiectasias, arteriovenous malformations, and aneurysms (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis/ Pseudopsora)

3-     Localized areas in capillaries are lined by a single endothelial layer and lack elastic tissue, resulting in vessel fragility and impaired vasoconstriction (Psora/ Syphilis)

VASCULAR ANATOMY

1-     The nasal cavity is a rich vascular bed, with blood supply originating from the internal and external carotid arteries

2-     The external carotid system divides and terminates as the superficial temporal artery and the internal maxillary (maxillary) artery

3-     The internal maxillary artery passes deep to the neck of the mandible, through the infratemporal fossa, deep or superficial to the lateral pterygoid muscle

4-     The artery then enters the pterygomaxillary fossa and terminates, dividing into the posterior–superior alveolar, descending palatine, infraorbital, sphenopalatine, pharyngeal, and pterygoid canal arteries

5-     The descending palatine artery descends through the greater palatine canal, supplying blood to the lateral nasal wall. It also contributes to septal blood supply via the incisive foramen

6-     The sphenopalatine artery usually divides at or near the sphenopalatine foramen, entering the nose and supplying the turbinates and lateral nasal wall and anastamosing with the ethmoid arteries

7-     A terminal branch of the sphenopalatine artery crosses the roof of the nose to supply the nasal septum, anastamosing with the greater palatine and labial vessels in Kiesselbach’s area (Little’s area) on the anterior septum. This anastomotic area is the site of most anterior epistaxis

8-     The facial artery, an earlier branch of the external carotid system, also contributes to the blood supply of Kiesselbach’s area and the anterior nasal floor via the septal branch of its superior labial division

9-     The internal carotid artery contributes to the blood supply of the internal nose via the ophthalmic artery

10-  The ophthalmic artery enters the bony orbit through the superior orbital fissure, dividing into a number of branches with two arteries, the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries, supplying the superior septum and lateral nasal wall

11-  The posterior ethmoid artery branches from the ophthalmic artery and exits the orbit via the posterior ethmoid foramen

12-  The artery crosses the ethmoid sinus, enters the anterior cranial fossa, and passes through the cribiform plate into the nose, dividing into lateral and septal branches

13-  The anterior ethmoid artery is larger and exits the orbit via the anterior ethmoid foramen, again crossing the ethmoid labyrinth, anterior cranial fossa, and descending via the cribiform plate

14-  The anterior ethmoid artery divides into lateral and septal branches, with the septal branch anastomosing at Kiesselbach’s area on the anterior nasal septum

15-  The anterior ethmoid foramen is located 14 to 35 mm from the optic canal, with 96% of foramina located in the frontoethmoid suture line

MANAGEMENT OF EPISTAXIS

The vascular anatomy of the nose and clinical observation categorize epistaxis into anterior and posterior locations.

Anterior epistaxis has a bleeding site visible on anterior rhinoscopy and almost always originates from Kiesselbach’s area on the anterior septum.

Bleeding sites not visible on anterior rhinoscopy traditionally have been assumed to originate posteriorly from the area of the sphenopalatine foramen.

General measures

1-     An accurate patient history is necessary, but it may need to be done in conjunction with tricks to control bleeding. Particulars about location, severity, duration, and frequency of bleeding are acquired

2-     The review of head and neck symptoms should include inquiries regarding nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, and trauma.

3-     The history also should include questions regarding underlying medical conditions, family history, medications, tobacco use, and alcohol use to discover factors that may be causing the epistaxis or that may affect management

4-     A general physical examination and thorough head and neck evaluation then is performed

5-     Anterior rhinoscopy should be done

6-     In conjunction with the physical examination, laboratory evaluation may be indicated for assessment of blood loss, fluid status, coagulopathy, or underlying systemic disease

7-     Sinus X ray and CT or MRI scanning may be needed for further evaluations

Treatment of anterior epistaxis

The patient with epistaxis optimally is evaluated in the seated position, with the examiner equipped with an adequate light source, suction, anesthetic solution, packing materials, and cautery available.

Packing

1-     When cautery is unsuccessful in controlling acute anterior epistaxis, packing may be necessary

2-     Compressed sponges may be used

3-     Septoplasty also has been used for treatment of anterior and posterior septal epistaxis

4-     Removal of a septal spur or correction of a deviation may be curative in recurrent septal bleeding

 

Treatment of posterior epistaxis

1-     Anterior and posterior packing

2-     Arterial ligation in those with packing failures

Posterior nasal packing

1-     A posterior nasal pack may be a gauze pack or an inflatable balloon pack

2-     An anterior pack should be placed whenever posterior packing is used. The traditional posterior pack is composed of rolled gauze. A useful alternative is a medium tonsil sponge.

Endoscopy cautery

1-     Rigid and flexible endoscopes and their suction–irrigation appliances are used with electrocautery of bleeding sites

Arterial ligation

1-     Ligation of the arterial blood supply is an effective method of epistaxis control

2-     It may include external carotid artery ligation, internal maxillary artery ligation, ethmoid artery ligation and arterial embolization

Septodermoplasty

Septodermoplasty consists of the removal of affected septal mucosa and resurfacing the area with a graft.

Laser photocoagulation

Laser photocoagulation has been used for treatment of epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

Homoeopathic Treatment

Homoeopathic approach is individualistic, holistic and constitutional. First causa occasionalis is removed, if any. Management of bleeding is done and indicated remedy is administered with success. Common remedies often indicated in epistaxis are-

NOSE - EPISTAXIS etc... abel. abrot. acet-ac. ACON. adel. Adren. AGAR. Agn. Aids. ail. alco. All-c. allox. aloe alum-p. alum-sil. alum. Alumn. AM-C. am-caust. am-m. AMBR. ambro. aml-ns. anac. anag. anan. ang. ANT-C. ant-s-aur. Ant-t. antip. apis aran. Arg-met. Arg-n. arist-cl. ARN. Ars-i. ars-s-f. Ars. arum-t. asaf. asar. asc-t. astac. aster. aur-ar. aur-i. aur-m-n. Aur-m. aur-s. aur. bals-p. bamb-a. BAPT. Bar-c. bar-i. Bar-m. bar-ox-suc. bar-s. bell-p. BELL. benz-ac. Berb. beryl. bism. bit-ar. blum-o. borx. both-ax. BOTH. BOV. Brom. BRY. Bufo buteo-j. CACT. cadm-s. Calad. calc-i. CALC-P. CALC-S. calc-sil. CALC. camph. cann-i. Cann-s. canth. Caps. Carb-ac. CARB-AN. CARB-V. CARBN-S. carc. card-m. cardios-h. Carl. CAUST. cer-ox. cer-s. cere-s. CHAM. chel. CHIN. chinin-ar. chinin-m. Chinin-s. chlf. choc. cic. Cina cinch. Cinnb. cinnm. clem. cob-n. coca cocc. coff-t. Coff. Colch. coloc. Con. conv. Cop. cor-r. corn. CROC. Crot-c. CROT-H. cupr. cycl. cyn-d. cyt-l. del. der. Dig. dios. diph. Diphtox. DROS. Dulc. echi. elaps elat. erech. erig. eucal. Eup-per. euphr. Eupi. ferr-act. Ferr-ar. ferr-i. ferr-m. Ferr-ma. Ferr-p. FERR-PIC. FERR. fic-r. flav. gal-ac. gamb. Gels. gins. Glon. glycyr-g. gran. GRAPH. HAM. Hecla helia. hell. Hep. hepat. hipp. hir. hura Hydr. hydrc. HYOS. Ign. ignis-alc. ind. Indg. Iod. IP. jug-r. kali-ar. Kali-bi. Kali-c. Kali-chl. KALI-I. kali-m. Kali-n. kali-p. kali-s. kali-sil. kola Kreos. lac-ac. lac-c. LACH. lachn. lap-la. lapa. laur. Led. leptos-ih. lil-s. lil-t. lob. lol. loxo-lae. luf-op. Lyc. Lyss. m-ambo. m-arct. Mag-c. mag-m. mag-s. maias-l. MED. meli-xyz. MELI. Meny. meph. Merc-c. Merc-cy. MERC. merl. Mez. MILL. morg-g. morg-p. Mosch. Mur-ac. naja nat-ar. Nat-c. nat-hchls. Nat-m. nat-n. Nat-p. Nat-s. nat-sal. nicc. nicotam. NIT-AC. Nux-m. Nux-v. oena. ol-j. olib-sac. onis. onon. op. orig. osm. ox-ac. oxal-a. oxyurn-sc. ozone pant-ac. par. parathyr. pert. Petr. PH-AC. PHOS. phys. phyt. pic-ac. pimp. pin-s. pitu-a. PLAT. plb. plut-n. positr. Prun. psil. Psor. PULS. pyrog. ran-b. raph. Rat. rauw. Rhod. rhus-g. rhus-r. RHUS-T. rob. ros-d. Rumx. Ruta Sabad. SABIN. sal-ac. sal-al. sal-fr. samb. Sang. santin. sarr. Sars. SEC. sel. senec. seneg. Sep. Sil. sin-n. sol-t-ae. spig. spira. Spong. squil. Stann. staph. stict. Stram. streptoc. stront-c. succ-ac. Sul-ac. SULPH. sumb. syc. symph. syph. tab. taosc. tarax. Tarent. tep. Ter. teucr. thiam. thlas. Thuj. thyr. til. Tril-p. trios. tritic-vg. trom. TUB. urol-h. urt-u. Ust. vac. valer. vanil. Verat. vib. vinc. viol-o. Vip. visc. wies. xan. zinc-p. Zinc.

Repertory of epistaxis

ABDOMEN - LIVER and region of liver; complaints of - accompanied by – epistaxis chel.

CHEST - COMPLAINTS of chest - accompanied by – epistaxis ham. nit-ac.

CHEST - CONGESTION - epistaxis; with mill.

CHEST - CONSTRICTION - Heart - epistaxis; with verat.

CHEST - EPISTAXIS - agg. carb-v.

CHEST - EPISTAXIS - amel. bov. brom. carb-v.

CHEST - HEART; complaints of the - accompanied by – epistaxis cact. dig.

CHEST - PAIN - burning - accompanied by – epistaxis thuj.

CHEST - PAIN - epistaxis – after calc.

CHEST - PAIN - epistaxis - amel. brom. carb-v.

CHEST - PAIN - Heart - epistaxis; with ind.

CHEST - PALPITATION of heart - epistaxis; with cact. Graph.

COUGH - ACCOMPANIED BY - epistaxis – night nat-m.

COUGH - ACCOMPANIED BY – epistaxis acon. agn. arn. bell. bry. caps. carb-an. carb-v. cina cor-r. cupr. cyn-d. DROS. dulc. ferr-i. ferr-p. ferr. hyos. Ign. Indg. iod. ip. kali-bi. kali-c. kreos. lach. Led. merc. mosch. mur-ac. nat-m. nit-ac. nux-v. phos. Puls. rhus-t. sabad. sarr. sep. sil. spong. sul-ac. Sulph.

EXTERNAL THROAT - PULSATION - Carotids - epistaxis - amel. tarent.

EXTREMITIES - INFLAMMATION - Legs - epistaxis; with borx.

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - epistaxis; during nat-c.

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - Joints - epistaxis; after – sore agar.

EXTREMITIES - PAIN - Joints - epistaxis; after agar.

EYE - EPISTAXIS - amel. brom.

FACE - DISCOLORATION - red - epistaxis - amel. bapt. bell. erig. ferr. meli. nux-v.

FACE - EPISTAXIS - amel. meli.

FACE - HEAT - flushes - epistaxis; with bufo

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - COMPLAINTS of female genitalia - Uterus - accompanied by – epistaxis sabin.

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN - Vagina - epistaxis; after – aching calc-p.

FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX - PAIN - Vagina - epistaxis; after calc-p.

GENERALS - FAINTNESS - epistaxis – before Carb-v.

GENERALS - FAINTNESS - epistaxis – from Acon. Cann-s. croc. crot-h. Ip. Lach.

GENERALS - FAINTNESS - epistaxis – with Calc. cann-s. carb-v. croc. lach.

GENERALS - HISTORY; personal - epistaxis; of recurrent - young people; in card-m.

GENERALS - HISTORY; personal - epistaxis; of recurrent aids. ars. carb-v. carc. chin. croc. ferr-p. ip. kali-c. meli. mill. PHOS. puls.

GENERALS - PARALYSIS - one side - accompanied by – epistaxis ham.

GENERALS - VARICOSE veins - accompanied by – epistaxis HAM.

GENERALS - WEAKNESS - epistaxis; from carb-v. chin. cina diph. ferr. ham. sec. verat.

HEAD - CONGESTION - epistaxis - amel. psor.

HEAD - CONGESTION - epistaxis - appearing; sensation as if epistaxis was ign. lac-ac.

HEAD - CONGESTION - epistaxis – with acon. alum. anan. ant-c. bell. bry. cact. carb-v. cham. chin. con. croc. graph. lach. lil-t. meli. nux-v. pic-ac. Psor. rhus-t.

HEAD - CONGESTION - night - stream from chest to head like a gust of wind, with epistaxis; a Mill.

HEAD - CONSTRICTION - accompanied by – epistaxis cact.

HEAD - EPISTAXIS - agg. alum. aml-ns. ant-c. borx. bry. Dulc. ferr. phos. sep.

HEAD - EPISTAXIS - amel. bell. brom. bry. bufo cham. chin. con. dig. ferr-p. ham. hyos. kali-bi. Meli. petr. phos. pic-ac. psor. raph. rhus-t. sil. tarent.

HEAD - FULLNESS - epistaxis - amel. tarent.

HEAD - HEAT - epistaxis - amel. bufo coff. Psor.

HEAD - HEAT - flushes of - epistaxis; with carb-v.

HEAD - HEAVINESS - epistaxis - amel. dig.

HEAD - PAIN - epistaxis - after - amel. alum. ant-c. bell-p. bell. brom. bry. bufo carb-an. cham. chin. dig. ferr-p. ham. hyos. kali-bi. mag-s. Meli. mill. petr. Psor. raph. RHUS-T. sil. tab. tarent. tub.

HEAD - PAIN - epistaxis – after aml-ns. ant-c. Borx. psor.

HEAD - PAIN - epistaxis - before - pressing pain Carb-an.

HEAD - PAIN - epistaxis – before Carb-an.

HEAD - PAIN - Forehead - epistaxis - amel. bufo

HEAD - PULSATING - epistaxis; after borx.

MIND - ANXIETY - epistaxis amel. kali-chl.

MIND - CONFUSION of mind - epistaxis; amel. carb-an. cham.

MIND - DEATH - conviction of - after fever, epistaxis amel. Psor.

MIND - DESPAIR - typhus fever; in - epistaxis amel.; after PSOR.

MIND - DULLNESS - epistaxis - amel. psor.

MIND - EPISTAXIS - agg. con.

MIND - EPISTAXIS - amel. borx. kali-chl.

MIND - FEAR - death, of - epistaxis; with Croc.

MIND - FORGETFUL - epistaxis, after Kreos. rhus-t.

MIND - HYPOCHONDRIASIS - epistaxis amel. kali-chl.

MIND - MOOD - changeable - epistaxis amel. borx.

MIND - MOROSE - epistaxis amel. kali-chl.

MIND - SADNESS - epistaxis, after puls.

MIND - STUPEFACTION - epistaxis, after zinc.

NOSE - CATARRH - epistaxis; with bar-c. ip. kali-bi.

NOSE - CATARRH - Postnasal - accompanied by – epistaxis bar-c.

NOSE - CORYZA - accompanied by – epistaxis acon. ambro. ant-t. ars. bell. bry. chin. elaps graph. ip. kali-bi. kreos. Merc. mosch. nit-ac. Nux-v. puls. rhus-t. senec. sil. sulph.

NOSE - DISCHARGE - watery - epistaxis; after agar.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - complaints; other carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - Face - congestion of bell. bufo cact. coff. erig. meli. nux-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - Face – pale carb-v. chin. ferr. Ip. puls. verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - gastric complaints Bry.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - goose flesh camph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by – nausea ars.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - odors; imaginary kali-s. puls.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - pain - pressing - Root of nose ham. ruta

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - swelling and dryness of nose phos.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - accompanied by - worms; complaints of Cina merc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - afternoon - 15 h Sulph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - afternoon - 16 h Lac-c. Lyc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – afternoon Ant-t. Calc-p. carb-an. cham. dulc. indg. kali-m. kali-n. lach. Lyc. m-arct. Nat-s. spong. Sulph. tab. thuj. trom.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - agg. Ham.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - alcoholics; in Acon. bell. bry. Carb-v. hyos. Lach. nux-v. SEC.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - alternating with - blood; spitting of FERR.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - amel. brom. bry. elaps ferr-p. kali-chl. meli. psor. rhus-t. tarent.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - amenorrhea, with both-ax. Bry. Cact. con. ham. lach. ol-j. Phos. Puls. sep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - anemia, with bry. chin. ferr. hydr. kali-c. nat-m. Puls.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - anger; after Ars.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - bleeders, in bov. crot-h. lach.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - bleeding; with general crot-h. lach.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – acrid kali-n. nit-ac. sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – bright Acon. aids. am-c. ant-t. arn. ars. bapt. bar-c. BELL. bit-ar. borx. bov. brom. bry. calc-sil. calc. canth. Carb-ac. carb-an. carb-v. cham. Chin. cic. Crot-c. cyn-d. dig. dios. dros. Dulc. Elaps erech. Erig. eupi. Ferr-p. ferr. gins. graph. hydr. HYOS. indg. IP. kali-bi. kali-n. kreos. Lach. laur. Led. mag-m. maias-l. merc. mez. Mill. nat-ar. nat-c. nat-s. nux-m. Ph-ac. PHOS. puls. Rhus-t. sabad. Sabin. sec. sep. sil. stram. streptoc. stront-c. sulph. Tril-p. Tub. zinc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood - clotted, coagulated - continually full of; nose is ferr.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood - clotted, coagulated - liver; looking like sabin.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood - clotted, coagulated – quickly croc. merc. nit-ac. puls. rhus-t.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood - clotted, coagulated – slowly blum-o. ham. lach. loxo-lae.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood - clotted, coagulated acon. agar. aids. ambr. Arg-n. Arn. bapt. BELL. bry. calc. cann-i. canth. carb-an. Carbn-s. caust. CHAM. CHIN. con. Croc. dig. dios. dulc. Ferr-m. Ferr. glycyr-g. ham. hep. hyos. ign. IP. kali-n. kola kreos. Lach. lyc. lyss. mag-c. mag-m. Merc. nat-hchls. Nat-m. Nit-ac. nux-v. ph-ac. Phos. PLAT. Puls. RHUS-T. sabin. SEC. sel. sep. stram. stront-c. Sulph. Tarent. Tub.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood - dark, black - and thin arn. carb-an. Carb-v. CROT-H. HAM. Lach. mur-ac. Nit-ac. SEC. Sul-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood - dark, black acon. agar. am-c. ant-c. Arn. asar. Bapt. Bell. bism. bry. calc. canth. CARB-V. Carbn-s. caust. Cham. chin. Cina cinnb. cocc. con. CROC. Crot-h. cupr. dig. dros. Elaps ferr. graph. Ham. ign. jug-r. Kali-bi. Kali-n. Kreos. LACH. led. lyc. mag-c. mag-m. merc-cy. Merc. mill. Mur-ac. nat-hchls. Nit-ac. Nux-m. NUX-V. Ph-ac. phos. plat. Puls. rhus-t. SEC. sel. Sep. Stram. sul-ac. sulph. Tarent. verat. Vip.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – fluid am-c. arn. Carb-v. CROT-H. Erig. eupi. Ham. Kreos. maias-l. phos. SEC. Sul-ac. ter. til.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – hot acon. Bell.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – offensive Sec.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – pale abrot. acon. am-c. ant-t. arn. ars. bar-c. bell. borx. bov. bry. calc. canth. Carb-ac. carb-an. Carb-v. chin. crot-h. dig. dros. dulc. erig. Ferr. Graph. hyos. ip. kali-n. Kreos. lach. lachn. laur. led. mag-m. merc. mill. nat-c. nat-s. nux-m. phos. puls. rhus-t. Sabad. sabin. sars. sec. sep. sil. stram. stront-c. Sulph. ter. til. tril-p. zinc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – putrid Mur-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – stringy bapt. CROC. crot-h. Cupr. kali-bi. Kreos. Lach. mag-c. Merc. naja Sec. sep. verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – uncoagulable ars. bry. carb-v. crot-h. ham. ip. Lach. Phos. thlas. tril-p.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blood – warm dulc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blow; from a acet-ac. ARN. Elaps Ham. mill. Sep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blowing on wind instruments agg. Rhus-t.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blowing the nose agg. – evening borx. graph. ham. sep. vanil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blowing the nose agg. – left am-c. bapt. ham. kali-n. sars.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blowing the nose agg. – morning Agar. arn. borx. Bov. Caust. kali-s. LACH. nat-c. nit-ac. Puls. sulph. thuj. tritic-vg. vanil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blowing the nose agg. – night arg-n. graph. nit-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blowing the nose agg. – right arg-n.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - blowing the nose agg. Agar. alum-p. alum-sil. alum. Alumn. am-c. am-m. ambr. anac. ant-c. arg-met. arg-n. ARN. asar. asc-t. Aur-m. aur-s. aur. bamb-a. bapt. Bar-c. bar-i. bar-s. borx. Bov. brom. Bry. bufo Calad. calc-p. calc-sil. calc. canth. caps. carb-ac. Carb-an. Carb-v. CARBN-S. caust. chin. cinnb. Croc. Crot-h. cupr. dros. elaps ferr-i. ferr-p. ferr. Graph. ham. hep. hir. indg. iod. kali-c. kali-p. kali-s. kali-sil. kola LACH. lap-la. led. lyc. mag-c. mag-m. meny. merc. mez. nat-ar. nat-c. Nat-m. nat-p. nat-s. nit-ac. Nux-v. pant-ac. par. petr. PH-AC. PHOS. plut-n. Puls. ran-b. rhus-t. ruta sabad. sal-al. sars. Sec. Sep. sil. spig. spong. stront-c. SULPH. symph. teucr. Thuj. tritic-vg. vanil. zinc-p. zinc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - boring with finger Ferr-m. Ferr-ma. Lach. ruta Sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - children; in – boys abrot. cop.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - children; in – girls croc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - children; in – infants sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - children; in – nurslings sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - children; in – scrofulous calc. sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - children; in abrot. arn. aur-m-n. bell. calc. chinin-s. cop. Croc. diphtox. Ferr-p. ferr-pic. FERR. Ham. ip. lach. merc. nat-m. nat-n. phos. Puls. Sil. Ter.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - chill – after Eup-per. Hep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - chill – during acon. arn. ars. bell. bry. calc. cham. chin. dig. ferr. hyos. ip. kali-n. kreos. lyc. merc. puls. rhus-t. sabad. stram. sulph. thuj. verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - chill - instead of nat-m.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – chronic bry. Vip.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - coffee agg. nux-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - cold; after taking a Bry. dulc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - convulsions – during caust. op. plb.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - convulsions – with caust. Mosch.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - crying; after nit-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - diarrhea; from suppressed abrot.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - dinner - after - agg. am-c. arg-met. hydr. spong. zinc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - dinner - during - agg. kali-bi. sil. spong.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - diphtheria; in - detachment of membrane; after Phos.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - diphtheria; in ars. Carb-v. Chin. Crot-h. diph. Hydr. Ign. Kali-chl. lac-c. Lach. Merc-cy. Mur-ac. Nit-ac. phos.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - drink the blood; desire to plut-n.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - drunkards; in sec.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - ear noises, with bell. Chin. graph. nux-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - easily - amel. maias-l.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - eating - after - agg. am-c. arg-met. arg-n. kali-bi. kali-c. spong. Zinc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - eating - amel. tarax.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - emotions agg.  carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - evening - 18 h coff.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – evening Ant-c. borx. bufo Carbn-s. Coff. Colch. dios. dros. dulc. Ferr. gamb. Graph. ham. indg. kali-bi. kali-m. Lach. Lyc. mez. nat-s. Ph-ac. Phos. phys. Puls. ruta sars. Sep. Sul-ac. Sulph. thuj. til.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - exertion agg. Arn. bry. calc. carb-v. Croc. lap-la. puls. Rhus-t. sulph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - expectoration; during dros.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - fever - amel. crot-h. lach.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - fever - during - agg. acon. arn. bell. bry. carb-v. cham. hin. erig. ferr-p. ferr. ham. ign. ip. lach. lyc. meli. nux-v. op. ph-ac. phos. pyrog. rhus-t. sep. sil. squil. stram. sulph. thuj. verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - flushes of heat; after ferr. graph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - followed by – vertigo carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - forenoon - 10-12 h carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - forenoon - 9 h kali-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - gushing out ACON. Arn. bell. CHIN. Merc. puls. rhus-t. sec.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – habitual nat-n. sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – hawking rhus-t.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - headache – after am-c. ant-c. bell. carb-an. croc. lach. meli. nux-v. sabin. SEP.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - headache - during - left nostril; bleeding from ant-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - headache – during ACON. AGAR. alum. am-c. ambr. aml-ns. ant-c. asaf. bell. Bry. cadm-s. carb-an. cham. chin. Cinnb. crot-h. dig. dulc. ferr-p. ferr. ham. kreos. lach. lap-la. mag-c. MELI. mill. nux-v. parathyr. phys. rhus-t. tub. verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - heated if – sun cyn-d.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - heated if thuj. thyr.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - hemoptysis, with Ham.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - hemorrhoids - suppressed; from kali-bi. Nux-v. sulph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - hot weather CROC.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - itching – after am-m.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - itching - followed by Hydr.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - itching – with arg-met. Arg-n. Arn. bell. Carb-v. kali-bi. lach. Rhus-t.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - jarring, from Carb-v. sep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - left - bathing; after calc-s.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - left - extending to – right ham.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – left aids. am-c. am-m. aml-ns. asaf. asc-t. bapt. bar-ox-suc. berb. bry. caust. chel. chlf. cor-r. del. dios. dulc. eupi. ferr-act. Ferr. glycyr-g. ham. helia. hydr. ignis-alc. kali-bi. Kali-n. kola lach. maias-l. merc. phys. plut-n. rhod. rhus-g. sars. Sep. spong. tarax. tarent. thiam. thuj.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - lifting agg. Rhus-t.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - light; from bell.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - lying - agg. hura puls.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - lying - side; on - right - agg. sulph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - masturbation; from lach.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - measles agg. acon. bry. ip. puls. sabad.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - mechanical causes; from arn.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – menopause arg-n. bell. bry. Ham. LACH. nux-v. Puls. Sep. Sul-ac. Sulph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - menses - after - agg. calc. sulph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - menses - before - agg. acon. Bar-c. Bry. Con. dig. gels. hydr. Ip. LACH. Nat-s. nux-v. Phos. Puls. sep. Sulph. thuj. Verat. vib.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - menses - during - agg. - profuse menses acon. ambr. calc. Croc. meli. sabin.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - menses - during - agg. – scanty Bry. corn. graph. Phos. puls. sec. sep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - menses - during - agg. acon. agar. alum. Am-c. AMBR. bov. bry. carb-an. dig. dulc. ferr. gels. GRAPH. ham. Kali-c. lach. Mag-c. nat-c. nat-m. Nat-s. nux-v. puls. Sep. Sulph. verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - menses - during - intermits; when flow Eupi. nat-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - menses - instead of apis both-ax. Bry. carb-an. cham. dulc. erig. eupi. ferr. graph. Ham. Lach. lyc. nat-s. phos. Puls. senec. sep. sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - menses - suppressed menses; from acon. bell. both-ax. BRY. Cact. calc. carl. Con. Croc. dulc. Gels. ham. hyos. kali-i. LACH. nit-ac. ol-j. Phos. PULS. Rhus-t. Sabin. senec. Sep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - morning - 6 h - 6-7 h aids. Chin.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - morning - 6 h sal-al.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - morning - 8 h Bry. sal-al.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - morning - bed - in bed - agg. aloe ambr. bar-c. bov. Caps. Carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - morning - bed - in bed - amel. mag-m.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - morning - bed - waking; in bed on aids. aster. bell. Bry. lap-la. mag-c. stann.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - morning - rising agg.; after agar. aloe ambr. berb. both-ax. bov. BRY. cham. CHIN. coff. ferr-p. ferr. kali-bi. lach. Nux-v. sep. stann. thuj.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - morning - stooping agg. Ferr.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – morning acon. agar. Agn. aids. aloe am-c. AMBR. ant-c. apis arn. ars. Arum-t. astac. bell. berb. borx. BOV. Bry. bufo Calc-s. Calc. canth. caps. CARB-AN. Carb-v. Carbn-s. Caust. Chin. coff. colch. croc. dios. dros. ferr-p. Ferr. flav. Graph. HAM. hep. hipp. hyos. indg. kali-bi. Kali-c. kali-n. kali-p. kali-s. kreos. Lac-ac. Lach. lap-la. Mag-c. maias-l. Meny. merc. Nat-c. Nat-m. nat-n. nat-p. NIT-AC. Nux-v. olib-sac. Petr. Phos. puls. rhus-r. Rhus-t. sabin. sal-fr. sec. Sep. sol-t-ae. spong. Stann. succ-ac. SULPH. thiam. thuj. tritic-vg. trom. urol-h.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - motion agg. bell. carb-v. Rhus-t.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - night aloe ant-c. arg-met. arn. Bell. bry. calc. caps. carb-an. CARB-V. con. cor-r. croc. graph. hyos. kali-bi. kali-chl. mag-m. mag-s. Merc. merc-c. mill. nat-m. nat-s. NIT-AC. olib-sac. Puls. Rhus-t. sars. spong. sulph. Verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - night - midnight - after - 3-4 h bry.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - night - midnight - before - 22 h - flushing of heat; preceded by graph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - night - midnight - bfore - 22 h graph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - night - morning – towards apis mag-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - noise agg. bell.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – noon kali-bi. tarax.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - nursing the child vip.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - old people Agar. aur. bar-c. bov. Carb-v. chin. con. ferr-p. ham. phos. SEC. sil. sul-ac. verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - one side ozone

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – oozing aloe Bapt. chin. crot-h. ham. phos. plb. Sul-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - operation; after thlas.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - overheating; from sep. thuj.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - ozena, in sang.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - passive flow ham.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - periodical - day; every carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – persistent camph. Carb-v. carc. Croc. Crot-h. Ferr. led. mill. mur-ac. PHOS. Sulph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - perspiration; with - forehead; on crot-h.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - perspiration; with bry. caust. con. nux-v. op. PHOS. tarax. thuj.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - plethoric patients abrot. Acon. nux-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - Posterior part ail. cor-r. ferr-p. spig.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - pregnancy - during - whole pregnancy erig.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - pregnancy – during bry. cocc. Sep. thlas.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - profuse - short; but cact. positr.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – profuse Acon. aids. bell. cact. cann-s. Chin. con. croc. crot-h. erig. ham. ip. Led. meli. merc-cy. mill. plut-n. rhus-t. sabin. sec.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - puberty; in abrot. croc. ferr-p. ferr. graph. ham. kali-c. nat-m. phos. puls. sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - purpura hemorrhagica, with Crot-h. Ham. Lach. PHOS. rhus-t. ter.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - relaxation of blood vessels; from Agar.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - right - extending to – left coca cor-r.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – right am-c. arg-n. brom. bry. calc. cham. cic. con. cor-r. cupr. dulc. echi. eupi. gamb. gins. ind. indg. kali-bi. kali-c. kali-chl. kola mag-c. merc-c. mez. phys. pic-ac. ruta sars. sil. spong. streptoc. succ-ac. symph. Verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - rubbing; after phos.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - salivation; with hyos.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - scarlatina; after mur-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - scrofula; with calc-s. sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - sensation as if - fever; during sep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - sensation as if cina cupr. eucal. lac-ac. lil-t. meli. phys. plut-n. xan.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - sepsis; with lach. naja pyrog.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - several days cop.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - singing; after hep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - sitting agg. carb-an. sul-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - sleep agg.; during bell. bov. Bry. Crot-c. graph. kali-bi. Merc-c. MERC. nat-s. Nit-ac. Nux-v. pitu-a. puls. spong. sulph. Verat.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - smell, lost Ip.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - sneezing – after ham. indg. zinc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - sneezing - agg. aids. am-c. bapt. Bov. Con. ferr-p. Indg. Mag-c. rumx. Sabad.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - spring, in the con.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - standing agg. sul-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - stool - during - agg. bry. carb-v. coff. phos. rhus-t. symph.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - stool - straining at – after Carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - stool - straining at - agg. Coff. Phos. Rhus-t.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - stooping - after - agg. carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - stooping - agg. dros. Ferr. Nat-m. Nux-v. ol-j. Rhus-t. sil.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – sudden cob-n.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - swallowing agg. lac-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - talking agg. lac-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - touch agg.; slight cic. hydr. ind. ruta Sec. sep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - typhoid fever; during Acon. ARN. ars. BAPT. Bry. carb-v. Chinin-s. croc. CROT-H. gels. Ham. Ip. kali-p. LACH. meli. Ph-ac. phos. Rhus-t. Ter.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS – vicarious Bry. graph. HAM. Lach. PHOS. Puls. sec.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - vision; with loss of indg. ox-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - vomiting – after ars.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - vomiting – with ox-ac. sars.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - waking; on am-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - walking - agg. elaps lach. nat-s.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - walking - air agg.; in open bry. lyc. nat-c. taosc.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - warm agg.; becoming carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - warm room agg. Puls. sep.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - washing; from – Face am-c. ambr. ant-s-aur. ARN. bry. Calc-s. Dros. dulc. kali-bi. Kali-c. onis. phos. symph. tarent. tritic-vg.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - washing; from – Feet carb-v.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - washing; from – Hands am-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - washing; from Am-c. Ant-s-aur. arn. calc-s. kali-c. mag-c.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - watery discharge, after agar.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - weeping; while Nit-ac.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - wet; after getting Dulc. Puls. Rhus-t.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - whooping cough - paroxysm; after cina indg.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - whooping cough ARN. bell. Bry. cer-ox. Cina Cor-r. Crot-h. Cupr. DROS. Ind. Iod. IP. Led. Merc. Mur-ac. Nux-v. spong. stram.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - wine agg. ars.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - wiping nose; when sec.

NOSE - EPISTAXIS - young women abrot. phos. SEC.

NOSE - ITCHING - epistaxis; before am-m. arg-met.

NOSE - NUMBNESS - epistaxis; with acon. bell. med.

NOSE - OBSTRUCTION - epistaxis; with acon. calc. puls.

NOSE - PAIN - epistaxis; with - burning pain hydr. led.

NOSE - PAIN - epistaxis; with hydr. led. mill. rumx.

NOSE - PAIN - Root - pressing pain - followed by – epistaxis bry. Dulc. kali-bi. Ruta

NOSE - PINCHED - as if - Root of nose - epistaxis; before vac.

NOSE - SNEEZING - epistaxis - amel. astac.

NOSE - TINGLING - Inside - epistaxis; before arg-met.

RECTUM - EPISTAXIS - amel. - Rectum and anus am-m.

RECTUM - HEMORRHOIDS - accompanied by – epistaxis carb-v. HAM. SEP.

RESPIRATION - DIFFICULT - epistaxis; with acon. bell. bry. carb-v. ip. phos. puls. spong. sulph.

SKIN - ERUPTIONS - scarlatina - accompanied by – epistaxis Acon.

TEETH - PAIN - accompanied by - Nose – epistaxis nat-s.

THROAT - EPISTAXIS - amel. tarent.

VERTIGO - ACCOMPANIED BY – epistaxis acon. Ant-c. bell. borx. bov. brom. bry. carb-an. lach. lap-la. sec. sulph. vip.

VERTIGO - EPISTAXIS - amel. brom. carb-an. card-m.

VERTIGO - FOLLOWED by – epistaxis carb-an.

VISION - DIM - epistaxis; with indg.

Bibliography

EPISTAXIS" border="0" height="61" width="44"> Ear, Nose, & Throat Disorders > EPISTAXIS Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015

Epistaxis" border="0" height="73" width="43"> Chapter 3. Differential Diagnosis: Symptoms, Signs, and Conditions > Epistaxis Clinician's Pocket Reference: The Scut Monkey, 11e

EPISTAXIS" border="0" height="59" width="47"> Ear, Nose, & Throat > EPISTAXIS CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics, 22e

Epistaxis" border="0" height="54" width="44"> Chapter 15. Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery > Epistaxis CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, 13e

Epistaxis and CSF Leak" border="0" height="53" width="43"> Chapter 12. Nasal Trauma > Epistaxis and CSF Leak CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, 3e

Epistaxis" border="0" height="51" width="42"> Chapter 32. Emergency Disorders of the Ear, Nose, Sinuses, Oropharynx, & Mouth > Epistaxis CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment Emergency Medicine, 7e

Epistaxis" border="0" height="61" width="42"> Chapter 25. Otolaryngology (ENT) > Epistaxis Improvised Medicine: Providing Care in Extreme Environments

Epistaxis (nosebleed)" border="0" height="64" width="37"> The Head and Neck > Epistaxis (nosebleed) DeGowin’s Diagnostic Examination, 10e

C. Epistaxis" border="0" height="50" width="40"> Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery > C. Epistaxis CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, 14e

Clinical Features and General Assessment" border="0" height="59" width="44"> Chapter 239. Epistaxis, Nasal Fractures, and Rhinosinusitis > Clinical Features and General Assessment Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine

Treatment" border="0" height="61" width="47"> Chapter 116. The Nose and Sinuses > Treatment Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine

Nasal Examination" border="0" height="60" width="46"> Chapter 239. Epistaxis, Nasal Fractures, and Rhinosinusitis > Nasal Examination Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine

Physical Examination" border="0" height="57" width="46"> Chapter 32. Emergency Disorders of the Ear, Nose, Sinuses, Oropharynx, & Mouth > Physical Examination CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment Emergency Medicine, 7e

Essentials of Diagnosis" border="0" height="61" width="48"> Chapter 23. Benign & Malignant Lesions of the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx & Nasopharynx > Essentials of Diagnosis CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment in Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, 3e

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia" border="0" height="62" width="46"> Chapter 172. Vascular Malformations > Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 8e

Bleeding Symptoms" border="0" height="63" width="47"> Chapter 106. Hemorrhagic Disorders > Bleeding Symptoms Hazzard's Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, 6e

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