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Compulsive buying disorder- CBD (Oniomania) and Homoeopathy

Compulsive buying disorder- CBD (Oniomania) and Homoeopathy

© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma M.D. (Homoeopathy)

Homoeo Cure & Research Institute

NH 74, Dr. Rajneesh Marg, Moradabad Road, Kashipur (Uttarakhand) INDIA

Pin- 244713 Ph. 05947- 260327, 9897618594

  1. mail- drrajneeshhom@hotmail.com

               www.treatmenthomeopathy.com

               www.cureme.org.in

For well formatted and illustrated article, please see attached pdf file....

Compulsive buying disorder and Homoeopathy.pdf

Contents

Definition. 1

Incidence. 1

Causes 1

Pathophysiology 2

Anticipation. 2

Preparation. 2

Shopping. 2

Spending. 2

Role of Dopamine (DA) 3

Role of Serotonin (5-HT) 3

Predisposing factors 3

Symptoms 3

Diagnosis 4

Differential diagnosis 5

Treatment 5

Homoeopathic treatment of oniomania (CBD) 5

Short repertory of oniomania. 5

Bibliography 6

Definition

Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) or oniomania is characterized by excessive shopping cognitions and buying behavior that leads to distress or impairment (Sycosis/ Syphilis).

Subjects with CBD report a preoccupation with shopping, pre-purchase tension or anxiety, and a sense of relief following the purchase.

Incidence

It is found in all socioeconomic classes and is more common among women than men.

Causes

The etiology of CBD is unknown. Some early life events, such as sexual abuse, may be causative factors (Causa occasionalis).

Pathophysiology

Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) or oniomania is both as a unique impulsive control disorder and as a disorder that shares features with other compulsive and impulsive disorders.

It is a pathological impulse predominantly found in women and where impulsivity is the fundamental factor ((Sycosis).

Persons with CBD often describe an increasing level of urge or anxiety that can only lead to a sense of completion when a purchase is made. There are four phases of compulsive buying disorder-

Anticipation

Development of thoughts, urges, or preoccupations with either having a specific item, or with the act of shopping (Psora/ Sycosis).

Preparation

Preparation for shopping and spending. This can include decisions on when and where to go, on how to dress, and even which credit cards to use (Psora/ Sycosis).

Shopping

Actual shopping experience, which many individuals with CBD describe as intensely exciting, and can even lead to a sexual feeling (Psora/ Sycosis).

Spending

Completion of the act with a purchase, often followed by a sense of letdown, or disappointment with oneself (Syphilis).

Disturbed neurotransmission, particularly involving the serotonergic, dopaminergic, or opioid systems, is the cause behind this compulsion. Both dopamine and serotonin are the primary neurotransmitters involved in the pathogenesis of CBD.

  • CBD is seen as a growing side effect of the use of dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease (Causa occasionalis).
  • CBD is often been found co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders including depression, addiction and personality disorders (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis).
  • Various structural brain lesions have been associated with CBD including head trauma. (Causa occasionalis)
  • Decreased white matter microstructural integrity in the inferior frontal brain region has also been identified in patients with CBD. (Sycosis/ Syphilis)
  • Multiple brain regions and neurotransmitter systems contribute to impulsive behaviors throughout the addiction process.

Role of Dopamine (DA)

Dopamine plays a role in "reward dependence", which has been claimed to substitute "behavioral addictions. Dopamine is relevant early in the addiction process as well as in later aspects. Dopaminergic systems have been concerned in impulsivity and ICDs (impulsive compulsive disorders).

Role of Serotonin (5-HT)

Like DA, GABA and glutamate, a role for serotonin (5-HT) is supported in impulsivity, ICDs and drug addictions. Once a behavior has moved beyond the initial stages of associative learning, executive control over its execution becomes increasingly important.

Predisposing factors

It is often seen in individuals who are taking some drugs or have some other mental disorders. These include-

  • Chemical dependency
    • Substance abuse
  • Anxiety
  • Eating disorder
    • Anorexia nervosa
    • Bulimia nervosa
  • Coexisting mood
    • Major depression
    • Panic attacks
    • Social phobia
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Symptoms

Compulsive shoppers experience repetitive, intrusive urges to shop. Shopping thoughts and behaviors are time-consuming and significantly interfere with occupational functioning (Psora/ Sycosis/ Syphilis). Triggers for shopping impulses include environmental stimuli such as being in stores, stress, emotional difficulties, or boredom (Sycosis/ Syphilis). These behaviors contribute to poor quality of life with marital discord, severe financial dislocations, and legal entanglements. Guilt, shame, and embarrassment may also disturb healthy life (Syphilis).

There is a sense of tension before and pleasure or relief during the theft (Sycosis), often followed by guilt (Syphilis). Main symptoms of CBD are-

  • Preoccupation with shopping and spending
  • Excessive, inappropriate or uncontrolled shopping behavior
  • The shopping desires, urges, fantasies, or behaviors use to be overly time consuming, causing the patient to feel upset or guilty, or lead to serious problems in his life such as financial or legal problems or the loss of a relationship (Psora/ Sycosis).

The patient of CBD has-

  • An urge to engage in behavior despite associated negative consequences
  • Increasing tension until the behavior is performed
  • Immediate but short-lived reduction in tension following completion of the behavior
  • Gradual return of the urge to engage in the behavior following completion
  • External signs like being in a location such as a retail store or searching online, unique to the behavior
  • Secondary conditioning by external or internal signs- like feelings of dysphoria or boredom
  • Pleasant feelings early in the condition

Typical items purchased by persons with CBD include-

  • Clothing and vanity items
  • Footwears
  • Compact discs and compact music players
  • Jewelry
  • Cosmetics
  • Household items

Diagnosis

In initial states, the symptoms are often neglected on patient as well as physician’s hands. The disorder is often diagnosed when patients seek help for another reason, such as depression, bulimia, or for feeling emotionally labile or unhappy in general (dysphoric). Initial psychological evaluations may detect early life events, such as sexual abuse etc.

Normal buying behavior should also be ruled out. Normal buying can sometimes take on a compulsive quality, particularly around special holidays or birthdays or particular occasions. Some persons buy relatively at higher frequency because they have been deprived of those articles in their earlier lives and try to avail them to the kids and other family members.

Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) or oniomania belongs to a residual class within Impulse Control Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) and requires more accurate diagnostic classification. It is characterized by an excessive desire for acquisition and by inability to control the purchase of new objects, despite awareness of the inappropriateness of the behavior. In 1994, McElroy suggested the following diagnostic criteria-

  • Frequent intrusive concern with acquisitions, or the irresistible urge to buy or buying more than one can afford, buying unnecessary items, or buying for lengthy periods.
  • Distress with the intrusive concern and repetitive behavior, or interference with social and occupational functioning, or financial problems resulting from the behavior.
  • Compulsive buying occurring exclusively during hypomanic or manic episodes is excluded from the diagnosis.

Differential diagnosis

Oniomania, kleptomania, pyromania, pathologic gambling, trichotillomania, intermittent explosive disorder, and impulse-control disorder have something common among them. Each of these conditions involves a drive or a temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the person or to others, or the failure to resist an impulse. Other associated features are the experience of increasing tension like dysphoria or arousal, often sexual, before committing the act. This is followed by a release of tension, a sense of gratification, or a sense of pleasure and relief during and after the act. There also may be a sense of guilt, regret, or self-reproach after the behavior.

Treatment

Once the disorder is suspected and verified by an extensive psychological interview, therapy is normally directed towards impulse control, as well as any accompanying mental disorder.

Relapse prevention with a clear understanding of specific triggers, should be noted.

Treatment may include psychotherapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and rational emotive therapy.

Homoeopathic treatment of oniomania (CBD)

Homoeopathy is the science of individualization. It treats the person, not the disease. The whole constitution, including mental and physical components is entirely restored to health if Homoeopathic treatment is given to the sick individual. The common remedies for compulsive buying disorder (CBD) or oniomania are-

aids. arizon-l. bit-ar. carbo-f. coca-c. dulc. ephe-si. falco-pe. heroin. hura ina-i. lac-h. lach. nux-v. oncor-t. oxal-a. ozone petr-ra. ruta tax. tritic-vg.

Short repertory of oniomania

Mind - BIPOLAR, disorder - shopping, obessions, with lach.

MIND - IRRESOLUTION – shopping ozone

DREAMS - GUITAR; BUYING A coca-c.

DREAMS - MEAT - buying and selling falco-pe.

MIND - IMPULSIVE - shopping; impulsive to go carbo-f. ephe-si. nux-v. tritic-vg.

DREAMS - WORK - shop, working in a falco-pe.

DREAMS - SHOPPING aids. arizon-l. bit-ar. dulc. heroin. hura ina-i. lac-h. lat-h. oncor-t. oxal-a. petr-ra. ruta tax.

Bibliography

 Encyclopedia Homoeopathica

 Radar 10

 Psychiatric Disorders > Clinical Manifestations Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 20e... potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments). The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm...

 Depression > Major Depressive Disorder versus Bipolar Depression Behavioral Medicine: A Guide for Clinical Practice, 4e... in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments) The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities...

 Mood Disorders > iii. Cognitive features Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Psychiatry, 3e... preoccupied with political, personal, religious, and sexual themes. They may exhibit an inappropriate increase in self-esteem and may have grandiose beliefs (e.g., of brilliance, success, wealth). Their judgment is impaired significantly, resulting in buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, and unwise business...

 Psychiatry > Dementia Improvised Medicine: Providing Care in Extreme Environments, 2e

... with judgment (e.g., makes bad financial decisions, falls for scams, buys inappropriate gifts)? Have a reduced interest in hobbies and other activities? Repeat questions, stories, or statements? Have trouble learning how to use tools, appliances, or gadgets (e.g., smart phone, computer, microwave...

Radar Opus 2.1.11

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