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The limbic system is a set of evolutionarily primitive brain structures located on top of the brainstem and buried under the cortex. Limbic system structures are involved in many of our emotions and motivations, particularly those that are related to survival. Such emotions include fear, anger, and emotions related to sexual behavior. The limbic system is also involved in feelings of pleasure that are related to our survival, such as those experienced from eating and sex.

Certain structures of the limbic system are involved in memory as well. Two large limbic system structures, the amygdala and hippocampus play important roles in memory. The amygdala is responsible for determining what memories are stored and where the memories are stored in the brain. It is thought that this determination is based on how huge an emotional response an event invokes. The hippocampus sends memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrieves them when necessary. Damage to this area of the brain may result in an inability to form new memories.

Part of the forebrain known as the diencephalon is also included in the limbic system. The diencephalon is located beneath the cerebral hemispheres and contains the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions (i.e., movement). It connects areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in sensory perception and movement with other parts of the brain and spinal cord that also have a role in sensation and movement. The hypothalamus is a very small but important component of the diencephalon. It plays a major role in regulating hormones, the pituitary gland, body temperature, the adrenal glands, and many other vital activities.

Limbic System Structures

Amygdala - almond shaped mass of nuclei involved in emotional responses, hormonal secretions, and memory.

Cingulate Gyrus - a fold in the brain involved with sensory input concerning emotions and the regulation of aggressive behavior.

Fornix - an arching, fibrous band of nerve fibers that connect the hippocampus to the hypothalamus.

Hippocampus - a tiny nub that acts as a memory indexer -- sending memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrieving them when necessary.

Hypothalamus - about the size of a pearl, this structure directs a multitude of important functions. It wakes you up in the morning, and gets the adrenaline flowing. The hypothalamus is also an important emotional center, controlling the molecules that make you feel exhilarated, angry, or unhappy.

Olfactory Cortex - receives sensory information from the olfactory bulb and is involved in the identification of odors.

Thalamus - a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter cells that relay sensory signals to and from the spinal cord and the cerebrum.

In summary, the limbic system is responsible for controlling various functions in the body. Some of these functions include interpreting emotional responses, storing memories, and regulating hormones. The limbic system is also involved with sensory perception, motor function, and olfaction. For additional information on the limbic system visit the Limbic System page.

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The Danger of Excessive Vaccination During Brain Development: The Case for a Link to Autism Spectrum Disorders

Russell L. Blaylock, M.D.

In 1976, children received 10 vaccines before attending school. Today they will receive over 36 injections. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Center for Disease Control assured parents that it was safe to not only give these vaccines, but that they could be given at one time with complete safety. Is this true? Or are we being lied to on a grand scale?

The medical establishment has created a set of terms, which they use constantly to boost their egos and firm up their authority as the unique holders of medical wisdom–the mantra is “evidence-based medicine”, as if everything outside their anointing touch is bogus and suspect. A careful examination of many of the accepted treatments reveals that most have little or no scientific “evidence-based” data to support it. One often repeated study found that almost 80% of medical practice had no scientific backing.

This is not to say that medical practice should be purely based on pure and applied science, as understood in the fields of physics and chemistry. Medicine, as pointed out by many of the great men of medicine, is an art. For a discussion on the proper role of medicine I refer the reader to my paper titled –Regimentation in Medicine and the Death of Creativity – on my website (

Most men of medicine recognize that some things are obvious without a placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized study. For example, there has never been such a study to see if smashing your finger with a hammer will be painful, but we accept it without such pristine evidence. The same is true with removing brain tumors or sewing up severe lacerations.

I find it interesting that there exist an incredible double standard when it comes to our evidence versus theirs. The proponents of vaccination safety can just say they are safe, without any supporting evidence what-so-ever, and it is to be accepted without question. They can announce that mercury is not only safe, but that it seems to actually increase the IQ, and we are to accept it. They can proclaim thimerosal safe to use in vaccines without their having ever been a single study on its safety in over 60 years of use, and we are to accept it.

Yet, let me, or anyone else, suggest that excessive vaccination can increase the risk of not only autism, but also schizophrenia and neurodegenerative diseases, and they will scream like banshees –Where is the evidence? Where is the evidence? When we produce study after study, they always proclaim them to be insufficient evidence or unacceptable studies. More often than not, they just completely ignore the evidence. This is despite the fact that we produce dozens or even hundreds of studies that not only demonstrate the link clinically and scientifically, but also clearly show the mechanism by which the damage is being done –even on a molecular level. These include cell culture studies, mixed cell cultures, organotypic tissue studies, in vivo animal studies using multiple species and even human studies. To the defenders of vaccine safety-our evidence is never sufficient and, if we face reality –never will be.

When I was in medical school, there was no proof that cigarette smoking cause lung cancer. The connection was as obvious as the layman’s observation that smashing your finger with a hammer would cause pain and even the town drunk knew it was true, but to the medical elite –there was no proof.

No one had ever produced lung cancer in animals by exposing them to cigarette smoke. In fact, my pathology professor, Dr. Jack Strong, had trained monkeys to chain smoke, and after years of smoking none developed lung cancer. Yet, he was convinced that smoking caused lung cancer. Dr. Alton Oschner, founder of the famed Oschner Clinic in New Orleans, led the charge in proclaiming the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. It took almost another decade before the medical elite was willing to admit that smoking caused most cases of lung cancer.

Almost 30 years passed from the time some iconoclastic men of medicine tried to convince the medical establishment that smoking caused most cases of lung cancer until it was generally accepted. The questions that needs to be asked is –How many people died of lung cancer, the most prevalent cause of cancer death in the United States, during this time? Data from the National Cancer Institute estimated that in the year 2004, 157,000 people died of lung cancer. If 80% were secondary to smoking that would be 125,000 dead. Over a ten-year period that would be over one million dead and over 30 years almost 4 million people who died from a preventable cause of death that at the time was still being hotly debated by the medical purist. Lung cancer death rates were actually higher during that time period.

So we see that questions of medical importance that are nick picked to death on points of scientific purity can cost a lot of lives –millions of lives. There are over one million children and even adults with autism and the numbers continue to grow. This is a medial disaster of monumental proportions. The link to the vaccine program is scientifically and logically compelling but these same medical elitists refuse to listen.

Like smoking and lung cancer, we have enough proof today to call a halt to the present excessive vaccine program and ban any level of mercury in vaccines. In 1983, before the autism epidemic began, children received 10 vaccinations before attending school and the autism incidence was 1 in 10,000. Today they are receiving 23 vaccines before age 2 years and 36 by the time they attend school and the autism rate is now 1 in 150 births. Medical “experts” have provided no other explanation for this dramatic and sudden rise in autism cases, despite a draconian effort to find one.

They attempted to say it was genetic, but geneticists were quick to respond that genetic disorders do not suddenly increase in such astronomical proportions. They then said it was because of better diagnosis, despite the fact that the diagnosis is obvious in virtually every case and that the criteria officially accepted for diagnosis has become more restrictive not less.

When trapped by a lack of evidence, defenders of a nefarious position resort to their old standby –the epidemiological study. Statisticians will tell you that the least reliable type of study is an epidemiological study because it is easy to manipulate the data so that the study tells you anything you wish it to. Every defense offered by vaccine defenders is based on such studies and never the actual science. Then they announce that the issue is settled and no further studies need be done. After the media has been informed that the issue has been settled, those who continue to present the evidence are considered kooks and the great unwashed ignorant.

The Autism Disaster: Is it Man Made?

Today, specialists speak of the autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which include a number of related neurodevelopmental disorders such as classical autism, Rett’s syndrome, Asperger’s syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). I have noticed over the years that when specialists know very little about a disorder they spend an inordinate amount of time naming and sub-classifying it –periodically. In addition they go to great lengths to define characteristics and symptoms of the disorder that must be present to meet the criteria of classification. Those who fail to meet these criteria are dispensed with into another dimension, that is, they are ignored.

In the early 1980s, the incidence of autism was 1 in10,000 births. By 2005, the incidence had leaped to 1 in 250 births and today it is 1 in 150 births and still climbing. One of the strongest links to this terrible set of disorders was a drastic change in the vaccine programs of the United States and many other countries, which included a dramatic increase in the number of vaccines being given at a very early age. No other explanation has been forthcoming from the medical elite.

In this paper I shall present evidence, some of which has not been adequately discussed, that provides strong evidence for a connection between excessive vaccination and neurodevelopmental disorders. In a paper I wrote in 2003, I stated that removing the mercury from vaccines would help relieve the problem, but it would not eliminate it. This was based on a number of studies in the neuroscience literature that indicated that excessive and especially repeated immune stimulation could result in severe disruption of brain development and even neurodegeneration.

In this paper and a follow-up paper, I attributed the central mechanism to excessive and prolonged microglial activation with an interaction between inflammatory cytokines and glutamate receptor subtypes. The Vargas et al study, published two years later in 2005, strongly supported this hypothesis, with the finding of elevated inflammatory cytokines as well as the presence of extensive, widespread activated microglia and astrocytes in examined autistic brains from age 5 years to 44 years of age. This indicated that the brain’s immune activation persisted for decades. Recent research indicates that this phenomenon is not that uncommon and can be reproduced in the laboratory using a variety of immune stimulating agents and neurotoxins, including mercury and aluminum.

Autoimmunity and Vaccinations

A number of studies have suggested a link between autoimmune disorders and autism risk. Support comes from studies showing an increased risk of ASD in children of mothers with autoimmune disorders.1-3 Yet, not all studies agree, since at least one carefully done study found no strong link.4

Other more carefully done studies provided evidence suggesting some link. For example, in one study serum from a mother with an autistic child was found to bind immunologically with specific brain cells (Purkinje cells).5 When this serum was injected into pregnant mice, their babies demonstrated neurological changes suggestive of autistic behavior, indicating a transfer of the autoantibodies into the developing baby mouse.

A number of studies have found autoantibodies in a significantly higher number of autistic children to various brain structures, such as serotonin receptors, myelin basic protein, neuron axon filament protein, nerve growth factor and cerebellar neurofilaments.6-10 It should be understood that these autoantibodies are not found in all cases and that they may develop as a result of the damage caused by the disease itself, rather than causing the disease. For example, we know that after a stroke or head injury a substantial number of people will develop autoantibodies to brain proteins. Never the less, the autoantibodies can worsen the damage and prolong the damaging pathology.

It has also been demonstrated that methylmercury (from fish) and ethylmercury (in thimerosal) are both powerful immunosuppressants and are associated with a high incidence of autoimmunity.11 In this study, researchers found that unlike methylmercury, thimerosal (ethylmercury) initially caused immune suppression and then strong TH2-induced autoimmunity. They attributed this to the higher conversion of ethylmercury to ionic mercury (Hg+) than seen with methylmercury. In fact, one study found that strains of mice highly susceptible to developing autoimmune diseases were sensitive to the ASD-like behavioral effects upon mercury exposure, whereas mouse strains genetically not susceptible to autoimmunity do not develop ASD behaviors.12 It is obvious from the extremely high incidence of ASD that these autoimmune-related genes are very common, but they remain silent until triggered by vaccines or other environmental toxins.

Immunologists have now concluded that autoimmune disorders are not the result of excessive activation of a normal immune system, but rather activation of a dysfunctional immune system. The question remains- what is causing such widespread immune dysfunction among our population? Studies have shown that the number of autoimmune diseases has increased over the past 30 years, with asthma, type 1 diabetes and eczema rates increasing over two fold. There is also compelling evidence to indicate that certain vaccinations are associated with these autoimmune-related conditions.13,14

A compelling number of studies have shown an increase incidence of autoimmune reactions in children with the autism spectrum disorders (ASD), especially involving measles antigens, milk antigens and antibodies to gliadin and gluten.15-17 Some of these have been shown to cross-react with brain-derived proteins as well, especially those in the cerebellum, a major structure affected in these disorders.18

Recently, neuroscientists have shown that much of the damage done in cases of autoimmunity is not due to direct immune reactions with brain structures, but rather results from the release of storms of free radicals and lipid peroxidation products during the immune reaction, something I call a “hand grenade in a shopping mall effect”. If you use a hand grenade to target a single person in a crowd you will not only kill and injure the intended target, but all of the bystanders as well.

Neuroscientists P.L. McGeer and E.G. McGeer have named this effect bystander damage.19 The immune attack caused by the autoimmune reaction in the autistic person’s brain damages a number of surrounding structures, especially brain connections called dendrites and synapses. Subsequent studies have confirmed that bystander damage is the most destructive reaction of autoimmunity.

Some studies, as referred to above, have shown that autism is much more common in families with a hereditary tendency for autoimmune diseases, which makes sense because they will have dysfunctional immune systems. There is also compelling evidence that vaccines themselves can damage the immune system of immature animals, leading to a higher incidence of autoimmunity and abnormal brain development.20-24 Mercury, even in small concentrations, is also known to induce autoimmunity in a high percentage of those exposed.11

Ironically, things that suppress a portion of the immune system, usually cellular type immunity, increase the likelihood of autoimmunity. Immunologists speak about a Th1 to Th2 shift and vice versa. This can occur with exposure to mercury as well as in response to vaccination.25 A great number of autoimmune diseases are associated with a Th2 shift.

The immune system is a very complex system, which at birth is incompletely formed. This means, and has been confirmed in animal and human studies, that immune reactions to vaccinations differ at different ages, so that small babies have a different reaction than adults. This has been shown with the hepatitis B vaccine now given to newborns. The rate of maturation of the immune system also differs considerably among babies and children, meaning we cannot say what effect will occur in all children. There are a great many variables, including diet.

The immune system’s reaction to infection and immunization can be quite different. Normally the immune system relies on a shifting of T-lymphocyte function to determine which is better for the particular situation.26 The T-helper lymphocytes (Th) can exist as either Th1, Th0, or Th2 forms. When no infection is occurring, the system is in the Th0 mode (an uncommitted phase). If a virus invades, it quickly switches to the Th1 phase, which allows immune cells to secrete a group of cytokines that kill viruses. It also activates immune lymphocytes that kill viruses and bacteria. At other times, the immune system needs a whole different set of immune signals and cells, which are supplied by the Th2 phase. The Th2 phase favors the production of antibodies, mainly supplied by B-cells, but in general they reduce immune reactions.

Infants are stuck in the Th2 mode during intrauterine life, so as to prevent being immunologically rejected by the mother during pregnancy (much like transplant rejection), since the baby is seen as a foreign body to the mother’s immune system. Upon birth, the baby remains in a Th2 mode, but has a limited ability to switch to the Th1 defensive mode if the need arises, say from an infection. Months later the baby switches to the adult Th1 mode. If the baby’s immune system remains in a Th2 mode, it has a high risk of developing an autoimmune disorder, such as eczema, asthma or other allergies.

Presently, vaccine authorities recommend every baby be vaccinated with the Hepatitis B vaccine at birth. But, is this safe? A recent study looked at the immune reaction in newborn infants up to the age of one year who had received the HepB vaccine to see if their immune reaction differed from adults getting the same vaccine.27 What they found was that the infant, even after age one year, did react differently. Their antibody levels were substantially higher than adults (3-fold higher) and it remained higher throughout the study. In essence, they found that the babies responded to the vaccine by having an intense Th2 response that persisted long after it should have disappeared, a completely abnormal response.

Autistic children have been described as having a Th2 predominance, which would explain their propensity to developing autoimmune diseases and being more susceptible to infections early in life.20,28-30 Elevated proinflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-, have been described in studies of the cytokine profile in autistic children. As we shall see later, an excess production of B-cell cytokines and suppression of T-lymphocyte TH1 activity, as seen in autism, is associated with a high incidence of neurological damage by excitotoxins.

Several things about these immune responses are important to all parents, including effects of such immune overstimulation during pregnancy. For example, it has been shown that excess immune stimulation, as occurs with vaccination, can significantly increase the risk of a pregnant woman having a child with autism or schizophrenia later in life, depending on when the vaccine is given.31.32 In addition, persistent Th2 responses caused by the HepB vaccine puts your child at a great risk of developing an autoimmune disorder and impairing your baby’s ability to fight off infections. This means that immediately after birth this vaccine has put your child at a greater risk of all childhood related infections, including H. Influenza meningitis, meningiococcal meningitis, rotavirus, measles, chickenpox, etc. Not only that, but numerous studies have shown that such immune suppression greatly increases the number of severe complications associated with these infections, which means that should your child be exposed to measles or chickenpox they are more likely to suffer neurological damage, seizures or other systemic disorders.12,33,34 When this occurs, rather than admit that the science indicates that the vaccine program is the cause of the complications and deaths, the vaccine proponents scream that it demonstrates again the need for greater efforts to vaccinate our children.

Immune Suppression By Live Virus Containing Vaccines

It is also known that certain viruses powerfully suppress immunity, such as the measles virus.35 The MMR vaccine contains live measles viruses and recent studies have shown that immune suppression after vaccination with this virus suppresses immunity in a profound way that last as long as six months.36-41 In fact, the CDC recommends separating this vaccine from other live virus vaccines to prevent viral overgrowth (Yet, they combine it with two other live viruses-rubella and mumps viruses).

Yet, they never address the obvious question –wouldn’t this vaccine also make the child more susceptible to other naturally occurring infections such as hemophilus B influenza meningitis, meningococcal meningitis, persistent measles infection, influenza infection and even chickenpox? This has been strongly suggested by a number of studies.42 Not only would they be more susceptible, but severe complications and even death would be more common as well.

When death and severe complications occur due to these infections, pediatricians, the CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics use this as a justification for more vaccines, never admitting that the increase incidence of these infections and complications was caused by their previous vaccine recommendations.

This risk is especially high in families with a number of other children in the household or in children in day care centers. With a prolonged suppressed immune system, exposure to other sick children would put this child at a high risk of contracting the infection and of having complications or dying from the infection as stated.

Studies have also shown that vaccines that cover only a few strains of a virus or bacteria that naturally have a great number of strains (some have over a hundred strains), can cause a shift in strain dominance so that the strain not included in the vaccine then becomes the dominant disease causing strain. We see this with the meningiococcal and pneumococcal vaccines.43-45 This is discussed in the scientific literature but the public is never informed. Most pediatricians are completely unaware of this.

When combined with mercury, which is also an immune suppressing substance, the effect is compounded. Fluoroaluminum, formed in fluoridated drinking water, also interferes with immune function, as do many insecticides and herbicides used around the home.46

Often forgotten, is the substantial evidence that omega-6 oils powerfully induce inflammation and immune suppression when consumed in large amounts. Those eating a Western diet are consuming 50-fold higher amounts of this type of oil (called linoleic acid) than needed for health. These oils include corn, safflower, sunflower, canola, peanut and soybean oils. So, we see that the average child is exposed to a number of substances in their food and environment that can also alter immunity, making them not only more susceptible to natural infection, but also to vaccine complications.

In essence, by overvaccinating our children, public health officials are weakening their immune system, making them more susceptible to a number of infections and less able to combat the infections. This gives them an endless source of “horror stories” to justify even more vaccines. Remember also that mercury is an immune suppressant, that both from vaccines and seafood contamination.

One can see that a pregnant mother having dental amalgam fillings who eats a diet high in methylmercury-containing seafood and living in an area with high atmospheric mercury, such as West Texas, would be at a greater risk of having an autistic child than one not exposed to these other sources of mercury. These differences in environmental mercury exposure are never considered by those insisting all children have the same vaccines, including mercury-containing vaccines such as the flu vaccine.

The Autistic Prone Child

What is becoming obvious is that certain children are at a higher risk of developing autism than others, for a variety of reasons. It is also obvious that these newborns and small children develop infections at a higher rate than less vulnerable children. This may be because of a developmental immune deficiency, which can affect only a portion of the immune system and so be easily missed by their pediatrician. Indeed, it has been noted that a great number of cases of childhood immune deficiencies are missed by practicing pediatricians, especially the more subtle cases, which may make up the majority of ASD-prone children.

For example, many physicians treating autistic children have noted a high incidence of ear infections. These are treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which often lead to a high incidence of Candida overgrowth in the child’s body. Both infections will prime the microglia in the child’s brain –which is the brain’s specific resident immune cell. This priming effect shifts these normally resting microglia immune cells into overdrive.47 If stimulated again within weeks or even months, they generate extremely high levels of free radicals, lipid peroxidation products, inflammatory cytokines and two excitotoxins glutamate and quinolinic acid.48 Studies have shown that this is the major mechanism for both viral and vaccine-related brain injury.

The high incidence of infection in these children indicates the possibility of preexisting immune system dysfunction. As stated, this also increases the risk of an autoimmune reaction. The stage is then set for the autism cascade to develop and this can be triggered by early vaccination or a recurrent infection. Remember, the microglia have been primed, either by a natural infection or an earlier vaccination (such as the hepatitis B vaccine given soon after birth). The vaccine is different from a natural infection in that the vaccine produces brain immune stimulation for very prolonged periods.

It has been proven, in both animal studies and human studies, that systemic infections or immune activation by vaccines, rapidly activate the brain’s microglial system and can do so for prolonged periods.49-53 Once the primed microglia are reactivated by the subsequent vaccination or infection, the microglia activate fully and pour out their destructive elements as discussed above.

With a natural infection, the immune system quickly clears the infection and then shuts off the immune activation, thus allowing repair of what damage was done. This shutting down of the microglia is very important. There is evidence that with repeated and excessive vaccine-triggered immune stimulation, the microglia do not shut down.47 This is what was found in the Vargas et al study, in which they examined the brains of 11 autistics from age 5 years to 44 years of age dying without active infectious diseases as compared to age matched controls.54 That is, they found widespread activation of inflammatory cells (microglia and astrocytes) in the brains of the autistic patients. This explains the widespread brain damage seen in all autism cases.

This study was one of the most carefully conducted, extensive examinations of the immune reactions in the autistic brain ever done and involved immunocytochemistry, cytokine protein assays and enzyme-linked immunoascorbant assays of the brain tissue. They also performed similar assays of spinal fluid from an additional six living autistic patients, which confirmed the intense immune activation and inflammation.

The average child receiving all of the recommended vaccines will have some 23 inoculations by age two years and 36 by the time they enter school. Most of these will be spaced within one month of each other, which means the priming and activation cycle of the microglia will be continuous. In addition, should they follow the new CDC recommendation, they will receive the flu vaccine every year starting at age 6 month through age 18 years. These vaccines contain a full dose of thimerosal mercury.

In addition, we must consider the effect of the measles and rubella portions of the MMR vaccine, which begins at age 1 year. The profound immune suppression, which last up to 6 months after it is given, will not only increase the risk of developing other infections, but will increase the risk of an autoimmune reaction. Cytomegalovirus is also a powerful immune suppressing virus that commonly infects newborns and small children, especially if they are immune suppressed. So, we see that giving a live, immunosuppressant vaccine early in life can dramatically increase the risk of autoimmune disorders, increase microglial brain injury as well as increase the risk of infection by other immune-suppressing viruses and pathogenic organisms. And, it dramatically increases the risk of your child developing one of the autism spectrum disorders.

It should also be appreciated that the Candida infections in these children trigger a prolonged systemic immune reaction, which means a prolonged brain immune response as well and a worsening of any autoimmune disorder it may have produced..

Seizures and Autism

It is estimated that 30% to as high as 82% of autistic children develop seizures, depending on the sensitivity of the examination.55-56 Growing evidence indicates that there is a close correlation between brain inflammation (by microglial released inflammatory cytokines and glutamate) and seizures, just as we see with excessive brain immune stimulation with vaccines. Using lipopolysacchride as a vaccine-based immune stimulant, scientists have induced seizures in experimental animals of various species.57,58

A considerable amount of evidence links excitotoxicity and seizures. In addition, a number of the newer antiseizure medications work by blocking glutamate receptors or preventing glutamate release. One of the central mechanisms linking excessive immune stimulation with seizures, as with vaccines, is the induced release of the excitotoxin glutamate and quinolinic acid from immune stimulated microglia and astrocytes.59-61

In many cases these seizures are clinically silent or manifest as behavioral problems, often not recognized by pediatricians as seizures. Yet, they can alter brain function and eventually result in abnormal brain development. Even the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that infants and children with a history of seizure should not be vaccinated.

It is also known that autistic children who regress, that is begin to show a sudden worsening of mental development, have a significantly higher incidence of seizures, both clinical and subclinical, than those who do not regress. Interestingly, studies have shown that during early brain development after birth the number of glutamate receptors (that trigger the seizures) increase steadily until the age of 2 when it peaks.62 Thereafter they decline in number. This means that the immature brain is significantly more susceptible to seizures than the more mature brain and this is when your child is being given 23 vaccine inoculations, many of which are associated with a high incidence of seizure.

Let just use the case of the 1 year-old child who is taken by his mother for his vaccines and the pediatrician convinces the mother to allow him/her to give all five vaccines recommended for that age group at that one office visit. After all, both the CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics assures mothers and fathers that it is completely safe to give them all at once. This not only means that the child’s immune system will be assaulted by 7 different antigens (viruses, three of which are alive) but by five full doses of immune adjuvant –a powerful mix of immune stimulating chemicals.

This intense immune stimulation not only results in a red, swollen and painful site where the shots were given, but a hyperintense activation of the brain’s immune system. Mothers and fathers are familiar with the high-pitched crying their babies have after such a series of vaccines. Often, this high pitched crying, lethargy and poor feeding last weeks to months. This is not due to the pain of the injection, as the pediatrician will assure you, rather it is secondary to brain inflammation –what we call an encephalitic cry.63

Recently, information was released that the combination vaccine by Merck, ProQuid resulted in twice as many seizures as giving the vaccines separately. This vaccine contains the MMR antigens as well as chickenpox viral antigen (in a dose 5x that of the single vaccine). The study was conducted by comparing 43,000 kids getting the ProQuid vaccine versus those getting the shots separately. While they attributed the increased seizures to fever caused by the vaccine, this is only part of the story.

I have seen a number of febrile seizures during my neurosurgical practice and my research indicates that the reason some kids are susceptible to febrile seizures and not others is that the susceptible ones are deficient in neuroprotective nutrients and are often exposed to neurotoxic substances, such as mercury and aluminum, that increase sensitivity to seizures. Consistently found in the studies of febrile seizures is the presence of low blood sodium levels (called hyponatremia).64

It is known in neurology that very low sodium blood levels can trigger seizures, even in normal people. It can also result in rapid coma and death, especially in a child. In the presence of brain inflammation, the incidence of hyponatremic seizures is much higher. One of the major causes of hyponatremia in infants and small children is the doctor giving IV fluids that contain little or no sodium chloride (salt). During my practice I constantly tried to convince pediatricians to stop using D5W (5% dextrose and water) as an IV solution in sick children, because it induced seizures. I am convinced that a significant number of children who died following a meningitis infection actually died of hyponatremia induced by a combination of the infection and the pediatrician giving hypotonic IV fluids (D5W) during treatment.

I will always remember the case of a little girl who developed H. Influenza meningitis and was in a deep coma. The pediatricians consulted me, suspecting a brain abscess. This was quickly ruled out. I noted the child was getting D5W as an IV solution. A simple blood test demonstrated she had severe hyponatremia. Because she was comatose, the pediatricians wanted me to let her die. I refused. They even went so far as to approach my partners to have them take me off the case. Fortunately, they refused to intervene. I corrected her sodium deficiency and she made a good recovery and had no further seizures.

Studies have also shown that glutamate, as MSG, given to small animals with immature nervous systems, also increase the likelihood of seizures from other causes, such as fever.65,66 Excess vaccination, increases brain levels of glutamate.

Keep in mind that the child by age one will already have had 20 vaccine inoculations, each spaced no more than one or two months apart. This means the brain microglia are maintained in a constant primed state. Each vaccine increases dramatically the damage done by the previous vaccine series. One is not surprised that so many vaccinated children develop seizures, often repetitive seizures, or that we have such a high incidence of autism. And I can assure the elite of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC that over one million autistic children far exceeds the danger measles, mumps, diphtheria, chickenpox, tetanus, rotavirus, HiB meningitis and hepatitis pose to our youth. Also, keep in mind that for every fully autistic child there are ten times that many with lesser degrees of impairment.

Compelling evidence indicates that the death rates from the childhood vaccines fell dramatically in developed countries prior to the mass vaccination programs, as documented in Neil Z. Miller’s book, Vaccines: Are They Really Safe and Effective?.67 Objective studies attribute the fall in death rates to better nutrition and improved public sanitation. So, when you hear health authorities warn that stopping the present vaccine program will mean a return of millions of children dead from childhood diseases, they are lying and know they are lying.

Human Brain Development is Different

The human being has an unusual brain development in that there is a prolonged period of maturation and neuroanatomical pathway development occurring years after birth. The most rapid brain development occurs during the last trimester of intrauterine life and two years after birth –what is referred to as the brain growth spurt. It is the areas regulating higher brain functions, such as emotions, emotional control, thinking, complex memory and language function that is last to develop.

Recent studies using functional MRI scans (fMRI) and PET scanning have shown that brain development continues until about age 26 or 27. Using such brain mapping techniques as volumetric parcellations that give a 3-D view of the brain, researchers examined the brains of 13 children followed for 10 years with scans being done every 2 years.68 What they found is that there was an overdevelopment of synaptic connections after birth that was slowly removed (called pruning) in developmental cycles during early childhood and even adolescence. For example, around age 4 to 8 years there was a thinning of the cortex in the language areas of the brain (parietal lobes) that spread to the temporal lobes and finally to the frontal lobes. This thinning moved the brain into a more functional state of development, that is, it got rid of unnecessary pathways and connections-sort of a final correction.

Further, they found that the language areas of the brain matured around age 11 to 13 years and the brain areas controlling higher brain function, the prefrontal cortex, matured in the mid twenties.69,70 What this means is that during the first two years of life, the child’s brain is undergoing rapid and very critical development and that the more advanced cognitive portions of the brain continued their development even later –much later.

There is compelling evidence that the pruning of these excess synapses is essential. Otherwise the brain would be inundated with an enormous array of competing signals –that is a lot of static and misinterpreted messages. This pruning process, as well as the growth, maturation and migration of neurons, is carried out by a combination of signals, which include carefully controlled fluctuating glutamate brain levels and appearance of specific microglia-released cytokines in a timed sequence.63,71-75 This is all very exacting and easily disturbed by a number of toxins, such as mercury and aluminum. It is also critically dependent on the presence of thyroid hormone.

Anything that alters these fluctuating glutamate and cytokine levels can affect, sometimes in drastic ways, the development of the brain, which as we have seen continues far into young adulthood.76-79

Pathological studies of autistic brains demonstrate three areas that are especially affected –the cerebellum, the limbic brain and the prefrontal area.80-83 There exist intimate connections between the cerebellum and the prefrontal cortex and between the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system –in particular the amygdalar nuclei. These are also areas frequently affected by inflammatory cytokines during immune stimulation, such as with vaccinations.84 In the Vargas et al study, the most intense microglial activation was in the cerebellum.54

In low concentrations, both the cytokines and glutamate act to protect developing brain cells and promote brain development (neurotrophic function), but in higher concentrations they can be very destructive, especially in combination. Of particular importance are the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 and 1ß (IL-1 and IL-ß), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-).85-89

Evidence that alteration in these cytokines can cause developmental brain problems comes from in part from studies of schizophrenia, a disorder that can be produced by stimulating inflammatory cytokine surges during pregnancy.90-92 It is known, for example, that women who are infected with the flu during pregnancy are significantly more likely to give birth to an autistic child or a child with schizophrenia, depending on when the infection occurs. At first, they assumed this was due to the virus being passed to the fetus, but subsequent studies found that it was not the virus, but the mother’s immune reaction that cause the problem –that is, it was the immune cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, Il-8, IL-6 and TNF-) tha
Precious article, I wonder what would happen if one were to post this in a open site, perhaps one that new parents come to.
Yes this is frightening, and more frightening was yesterday on tv, a show that portrayed autistic children undergoing surgery to boost their one skill, the autism kind that the child has one special talent like painting and so on. Albeit this show was fictional there remains the fact that some don´t make the connection established between autism and toxisity, vaccinations.
This reminded me of an event forty years ago. We have a lake here, the biggest lake in europe and a very popular fishing site for trout. The fishing men were annoyed by the huge amount of gnats that swirled the air above the lake and "interupted" their fishing experience. So what did they do?
They used a pestiside to kill the innocent flies. And this goes to show you the lack of thinking ahead. It wasn´t a long time until the fish almost disappeared. Today the lake and its aquatic life is still trying to recover. The huge trouts are nowhere to be seen.
So to eradicate the pest, they also killed their prize.
Same is being done here, vaccinate "to rid us of disease" and in the end we will have no childhood diseases, for the children will be unable to grow up as healthy adults and reproduce. Hence, eradication of disease is eradication of the diseased.
Yes, if they carry on like this, soon there will be nobody left to vaccinate. Kill the goose that lays the golden eggs
Hi Dagný ~ In fact, this is an open site. Anyone on the internet may see and read whatever you post here. So, if you want to link to this or other pages you may.
Everything has a purpose. A balance in nature. Did they not know what the fish ate at dawn and dusk when they were getting bit by gnats? Or why they went "fly" fishing?
the main food of the fishes was gnats, and that was common knowledge. This wasn´t the only lake they distroyed, (this is one of my hubbies interests, he´s very passionate about nature and the natural experiment of fishing with gnats in your face hehe) and unfortunately they didn´t make the connection right away
Ah, the usual half-@ssed approach. My comfort and my this that and the other. Shortsighted as usual. All about me, me, and me.


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