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Most recent update from Lionel Milgrom on publications


Toward a Topological Description of the Therapeutic Process:
Part 2. Practitioner and Patient Perspectives of the ‘‘Journey to Cure’’
Lionel R. Milgrom, PhD, FRSC, MARH, RHom

Volume 18, Number 2, 2012, pp. 187–199
ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/acm.2011.0391

Background: The discourse of quantum theory has been used to describe (1) the homeopathic therapeutic process (in terms of three-way macro-entanglement between patient, practitioner, and remedy, called PPR entanglement), and (2) the homeopathic concept of the Vital Force.

Methods: Combining these two approaches leads to a semiotic (i.e., pertaining to the theory of sign systems in language) geometry that illustrates the nature of this entanglement and how it could facilitate the patient’s journey to cure. Here, this geometry is extended further to gain insight into both practitioner and patient perspectives of the process.

Results: From the practitioner’s perspective, the semiotic geometry predicts PPR entanglement, generating a number of distinguishable therapeutic outcomes that depend on the various patient-, disease-, and remedy based ‘‘contributions’’ to the overall symptom picture of the remedy arrived at holistically. Furthermore, these outcomes may be seen as different facets of a more generalized PPR entangled state whose semiotic geometrical representation is hyper dimensional. Likewise, the patient’s perspective of the journey to cure can also be represented semiotically, this time as a series of cross-sections through a hype rdimensional figure of similar symmetry, entering and leaving the patient’s notional ‘‘dis-ease’’ space.

Conclusions: The semiotic geometries representing practitioner and patient experiences of the therapeutic process ultimately converge. Where they differ is that in elaborating the patient’s journey to cure, the practitioner’s perspective may be seen as from the outside of a whole process. As it is the patient who ultimately is traveling this journey, the patient’s perspective is necessarily from the inside, of stages or cross-sections of the whole process.


Topological Description of the Therapeutic Process


Volume 18, Number 2, 2012, pp. 103–105
ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/acm.2011.0960

A Prophet Lays Down His Pen by Alex Hankey, PhD

In the good old days, an illumined wizard ‘‘broke his wand.’’ The Tempest’s Epilogue,1 spoken by Prospero, after he has released Ariel from his power, and sent Caliban (a skeptic?) packing, contains one of Shakespeare’s most notable speeches. One hears not only Prospero’s illumined voice, ‘‘Now I want / Spirits to enforce, art to enchant,’’ and Shakespeare’s, laying down His Pen, but also the Divine: ‘‘Gentle breath of yours, my sails / Must fill, or else my project fails, / Which was to please.and my ending is despair, unless I be relieved by Prayer.’’

In one section of Four Quartets, T.S. Eliot’s illuminated signoff, God is represented as Practitioner. ‘‘The wounded surgeon plies the steel, / That questions the distempered part, Beneath the bleeding hands we feel / The sharp compassion of the healer’s art.’’2 If God is Practitioner, and Poet is Patient, the creative process is Remedy. Shakespeare’s triumvirate of God, Poet, and Prospero is thus somewhat akin to Practitioner, Patient, and Remedy, the subject of Milgrom’s work,3–8 from which he claims to be retiring.

Over the last 10 years, Milgrom has demonstrated a ‘‘magic touch,’’ arriving at a metaphorical model of quantum healing that, as he rightly suggests, may apply to all systems of medicine (see Milgrom’s article in this issue). His work has exemplified a fundamental principle: Science is not a set of laws, but a process of discovery, of continual renewal. Of this, creative minds are sure. Simple hypotheses are conjectured and tested, often refuted9; limits of known laws are delineated. Established laws should thus be regarded not as sacred mantras to be endlessly and unthinkingly repeated as skeptics are wont to do, but as possibly simplistic, and requiring updating; as Whitehead famously suggested, ‘‘Seek simplicity and mistrust it.’’10 Then outdated paradigms can
be discarded, and new ones adopted.11

  • Quantum Semiotics and Critical Fluctuations
    How does this connect to Milgrom’s metaphorical discourse
    on quantum semiotics?

    The answer is simple: At feedback instabilities, excitations are not ordinary quanta, but highly correlated critical fluctuations originating in quantum
    uncertainty. Their description requires quantum analogs.

    Milgrom’s whimsical analysis of his own theory is thus appropriate to the implications of hormesis combined with complexity biology’s ‘‘criticality’’ and ‘‘fractality’’ regulatory patterns. Furthermore, these quantum-like entities are not quanta: Walach and Milgrom’s thesis receives support.

    How does this concern homeopathy? Fluctuations are involved in criticality regulated systems. Without them, epigenetic regulation fails; enzyme regulation gets stuck. To restore ‘‘criticality’’ requires reintroducing fluctuations. Homeopathy may therefore work, providing the remedy consists of the quantum fluctuations, which can restore
    criticality18 and system regulation. Completing this account of homeopathy only requires showing that:
       Succussion of a chemical moiety amplifies its quantum fluctuations. We may soon understand homeopathic remedies’ action: Epigenetic failure of a critically regulated enzyme only requires the correct quantum fluctuations to restore its regulation of those of potentized toxins coupling to its active site.19 Such fluctuations can describe can Practitioner & Patient as well as Remedy (proof too long to include here), pointing to why systems of complementary medicine are so powerful: Most systems of complementary medicine help restore regulation to misregulated systems.

    Milgrom’s labor developing key aspects of the medical process may come to be seen as central to the new medical paradigm. Here are its key concepts:
       1. Psycho-psychological (medical) states are quantumstates, which may represent both practitioner and patient.
       2. Similar states can represent homeopathic remedies.
       3. Such states enter high-order correlations.


A Prophet Lays Down His Pen

Volume 18, Number 2, 2012, pp. 1–
ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/acm.2011.0959

Patient–Practitioner–Remedy: Quantum Interactions in Living Systems
Cyril W. Smith, PhD

Evidence from Biologic Systems In 1997, I gave a presentation with this title to the Frontier Sciences Department at Temple University in Philadelphia, PA citing experimental and clinical evidence in support of the thesis that a living system is a macroscopic quantum system.2 This needs to be established if Milgrom’s work is to have any relevance to CAM. My regret is that this evidence and its later update3 have not proved to be ‘‘overwhelming.’’

In 1973, I was first introduced to Herbert Fro¨ hlich, Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Liverpool, and our cooperation4 continued until his death in 1991. Measurements on humidified biomolecules gave very large dielectric constants consistent with a long-range order. Fro¨ hlich asked me for diamagnetic measurements. These were 10,000 times greater than to be expected and confirmed a long-range order comparable with that needed for low-temperature superconductivity. The effect disappeared above a critical magnetic field, suggesting coherence domains as in the Meissner effect.

Magnetic fields affected the enzymatic activity of lysozyme using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as the substrate. Its protocol produces not only cell fragments but also viable cells in the resting phase. Some effects did not occur in the enzyme alone but only in the enzyme–substrate complex. The onset magnetic field strength affecting lysozyme activity corresponded to a single quantum of magnetic flux linking the measured cell cross-section. Integer numbers of magnetic flux quanta linking Escherichia coli cells in culture affected the mean-generation time with a probability of less than 1 in 2 million for a chance effect. Frohlich then remarked that if a system can respond to single flux quanta, it should also show the Josephson Effect. We were able to measure its frequency-to-voltage and voltage-to-frequency inter-conversions (500MHz/lV) in thin films of lysozyme.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) involves quantized angular momentum, and we were able to show effects in living systems exposed toNMR conditions. Bovine eye lenses in vitro developed subcapsular cataracts in the posterior cortex of the lens when exposed to very-low-intensity microwave radiation if modulated at a frequency satisfying proton-NMR conditions in the ambient geomagnetic field. In dielectrophoresis experiments with normal diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resonance effects were obtained under conditions of electron spin resonance and NMR for 1H, 31P, 23Na, 37Cl, and 39K again with an onset at a magnetic field corresponding to a single quantum of magnetic flux linking the measured cell cross-section. Quantum Evidence from Patients

In 1982, the problems of patients who had become hypersensitive to their electrical environment came to find me. Usually, these patients already have ongoing multiple chemical sensitivities. Their sensitivity appears as a failure in some patient-specific regulatory system usually involving the autonomic nervous system. Initial tests using laboratory oscillators could reproduce their symptoms, which turned out to be the same as those produced by chemical challenge. Frequency was the determining factor. Their reactions could be provoked with certain frequencies of the A-field from a toroidal coil and neutralized with other frequencies. The A-field affects the wave function.

The Miller provocation-neutralization technique in allergy therapy involves a sequence of serial dilutions of the allergen. These alternately provoke and neutralize the patient’s symptoms. Scanning through the frequencies applied to a toroidal coil in the vicinity of the patient has a similar effect, and those frequencies that neutralize the symptoms provide a therapy. It is not practicable to provide each patient with electrical oscillators for therapeutic frequencies. However, these frequencies can be imprinted into water and used like a homeopathic remedy.

Quantum Interactions in Living Systems


The Eternal Closure of the Biased Mind?
The Clinical and Scientific Relevance of Biophysics,
Infinitesimal Dilutions, and The Memory of Water
Lionel R. Milgrom, Ph.D., F.R.S.C., M.A.R.H., M.R.Hom.


Volume 15, Number 12, 2009, pp. 1255–1257
ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089=acm.2009.0674


UK geneticist Professor Steve Jones’ aphorism about science that it is ‘‘a broad church full of narrow minds trained to know even more about even less’’1 could be considered an apt description of the recent commentary that appeared in the American Journal of Medicine.2 In it, the biomedical community was urged to adopt a closed mind toward homeopathy. Quite early on, however, by referring to manipulative physical therapies as ‘‘some of the more plausible aspects of alternative medicine,’’ one of the commentary’s authors seems to contradict his published stance on chiropractic.3


Then, in describing homeopathy as ‘‘among the worst examples of faith-based medicine . . . . ’’,2 the commentary neglects the conventional medical and scientific literature on some of homeopathy’s core tenets. Thus, hormesis (a biphasic dose response to an environmental agent (e.g., toxin, drug, remedial agent, etc.), characterized by a low-dose stimulation or beneficial effect, and a high-dose inhibitory or toxic effect)4 is a concept with a long history in medicine, precisely because of its association with a core tenet of homeopathic practice, namely, the potency of the minimum dose. Nevertheless, ‘‘the hormetic dose–response is far more common and fundamental than the dose–response models . . . used in toxicology and risk assessment. . . . Acceptance of the possibility of hormesis has the potential to profoundly affect the practice of toxicology and risk assessment.’’ 5


 Additionally, high-quality laboratory studies suggest infinitesimal dilutions agitated, or succussed in the manner used to make homeopathic preparations, may well exert biological effects.6–9 Indeed, most recently, very low doses of cytokines interleukin-12 and interferon-g were reported by Gariboldi et al.10 to be much more effective in a mouse asthma model when the cytokines had been prior subjected to what is described as ‘‘sequential kinetic activation’’; in other words, serial dilution and agitation.


 Much as a 2005 Lancet meta-analysis11 is repeatedly cited as conclusive proof that homeopathy is nothing more than placebo, it has, in fact been shown to be biased by several independent authors,12–15 and contains significant scientific flaws.16,17 Not only does this meta-analysis have an unusual paucity of literature references, but also it violates the Lancet’s own strict guidelines on methodological and publication transparency.18 So, perhaps it is not the ‘‘genuine and humble wish to explore the limits of our knowledge using the scientific method’’2 that the American Journal of Medicine commentary suggests itself to be.


Equally, the assertion in the commentary that the results of homeopathic prescribing lack efficacy beyond what might be expected of a placebo response2 relies heavily on just two systematic reviews, both by one of the commentary’s authors.19,20 This could be interpreted as suggesting that the author’s systematic reviews alone are the only well-designed high-quality studies, and that those of others7,8,10,21–23 considered to be at least of equally high quality, if not more, should be discounted.


 The commentary goes on to suggest that the scientific validity of homeopathy must exist in a ‘‘parallel universe,’’ because if it were correct, it would mean that ‘‘much of physics, chemistry, and pharmacology must be incorrect.’’2 However, in the commentary’s ‘‘parallel universe’’ of ‘‘gold standards’’ and systematic reviews, all is not well with evidence-based medicine. In fact, many conventional medical procedures are well known to lack scientific evidence;24 fraud in biomedical and pharmacological research has been exposed recently and objectively referenced,25,26 while clear evidence exists for the harm that can result from routine conventional medical practice and prescribing.27,28 It would no doubt have been to the commentary’s credit if its authors had campaigned for an open mind to the shortcomings of conventional biomedicine. Instead, they assert that ‘‘[t]he true sceptic . . . takes pride in closed mindedness when presented with absurd assertions that contravene the laws of thermodynamics,’’2 a reference to the Memory of Water hypothesis, as a possible explanation for the efficacy of remedies prepared by the method of serial dilution and succussion as in homeopathy. Though the Memory of Water hypothesis cannot yet be taken as providing definitive evidence supporting the tenets of homeopathic medicine,29 it is factually incorrect to assume that it contravenes basic scientific principles. There is now a growing body of evidence29 from chemistry,30–33 physics,34,35 and materials science,36 suggesting that the properties of water may well depend on its dilution history.30 The question now is how?


Closed and Biased Minds


Falling Trees, Fractals, and Sophistry:
Some Philosophical ‘‘Biohazards’’ En Route
to Reconciling Biomedicine and Homeopathy
Lionel R. Milgrom, Ph.D., F.R.S.C., M.A.R.H.

Volume 15, Number 11, 2009, pp. 1247–1254
ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089=acm.2009.0004

Abstract Introduction: Reconciling biomedical science and homeopathy might usefully begin by examining their various observational stances. This depends significantly on preconceptions about the nature of reality (e.g., whether it exists externally, independent of observers, or whether it is to some extent correlated nondeterministically with observation).


 Methods: Based on known observables, a rudimentary fractal model of the universe is proposed consisting of a series of self-similar integrated levels of reality, or ‘‘wholes’’ contained one within another like a set of Russian dolls. This model suggests possible contextualization of homeopathy and biomedicine’s observational stances. Results: The fractal model bears compelling similarities to the ancient Hermetic tradition encapsulated in the phrase, ‘‘As above; so below.’’ In the context of this model, homeopathy’s observational stance includes a multidimensional range of symptoms from across several ‘‘levels of wholeness.’’ In contrast, biomedicine’s stance corresponds to exclusive observation of separate symptoms, each originating from one physical level of reality. Conclusions: Pragmatic reconciliation of these two viewpoints is possible if it is realized that they are not contradictory but complementary; that each has its place in the therapeutic scheme of things, and that it should be possible to move freely between each type of observational stance as the patient’s circumstances dictate. Introduction


 Homeopathy is currently accused,1,2 of being ‘‘improbable,’’ ‘‘unscientific,’’ even ‘‘deadly.’’ The possible reasons for these attacks have been considered elsewhere:3,4 the purpose of this article is to explore a different approach in which the competing viewpoints of homeopathy and conventional biomedicine might be reconciled.

If A Tree Falls In The Woods?

Homeopathy UK: ‘The Sick Man of Europe’?
Published online: June 20, 2012

In India, Latin America, and Europe, homeopathy thrives: in the UK, all one ever hears is negativity. Here, homeopathy is described as ‘(...) just a placebo’, ‘(…) contrary to the laws of science’, ‘(…) quackery practiced on the weak-minded’, and ‘(…) those who believe in it are deluded’ [1]. In addition, ‘there is no evidence homeopathy works’, ‘(…) homeopathy is unethical’ [2–5], and from the British Government’s Chief Scientific Advisor, Sir John Beddington, the ‘(…) National Health Service (NHS) must be crazy to continue funding it’ [6].

The Sick Man of Europe? <~ Full Article

Emerging Economies’ Need for Cheap, Efficient Health Care Makes Western Anti-Homeopathy Rhetoric Irrelevant: Observations from the Canadian Homeopathy Conference, October 2011

Lionel R. Milgrom, PhD, RHom,1 Maria R. Ringo, DHMHS, BGS,2 and Karen M. Wehrstein, BAA, DIHom3

THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE Volume 18, Number 7, 2012, pp. 1–4 ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2012.0236

Abstract Large-scale use and acceptance of homeopathy in Cuba, Latin America, and India raises questions about the relevance of campaigns mounted against homeopathy in the United Kingdom, Australia, and other nations of the developed world, especially as the developing economies of Asia and Latin America are set to outstrip those of the developed world.


Emerging Economies’ Need for Homeopathy <~ Full Article

Is Homeopathy Really "Morally and Ethically Unacceptable'? A Critique of Pure Scientism by Lionel Milgrom and Kate Chatfiel

Bioethics ISSN 0269-9702 (print); 1467-8519 (online)

ABSTRACT In this short response we show that Kevin Smith’s moral and ethical rejections of homeopathy1 are fallacious and rest on questionable epistemology. Further, we suggest Smith’s presumption of a utilitarian stance is an example of scientism encroaching into medicine.


Bioethics Article <~ Full Article

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Thank you for this wonderful article and for encouraging discussion on a subject that is so contentious both amongst the scientific and the homeopathic community! It opens the horizons and clears the air, promotes re-framing of ridged mind set concepts. 



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