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Extreme or passionate displeasure. (Adapted from Stedman)

Anger is an emotion characterized by antagonism toward someone or something felt has deliberately done wrong. Anger can be a good thing. It can give a way to express negative feelings, for example, or motivate you to find solutions to problems. But excessive anger can cause problems. Increased blood pressure and other physical changes associated with anger make it difficult to think straight and harm your physical and mental health. (Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology)

General Aspects of Anger to consider

Sources of anger.

Intensity and variability.

Direction, target.

Handling/coping methods, impulse control, anger out/in.

Terms related to Anger (given by degree of anger)

Irritated                        Temperamental             Hostile                          Furious

Annoyed                        Whining                         Provoked                       Enraged

Disgruntled                     Piqued                           Embittered                     Incensed

Cranky                          “Pissed Off”                  Exasperated                    Choleric

Miffed                           “Burned Up”                  Indignant                       

Displeased                      “Bugged”                       Simmering                      Threatens

“Snippy”                        Smouldering                   Seething                         Shouts

“Bothered”                     Ill-Tempered                  Infuriated                       Yells

Restive                          Bad-Tempered                                                   

Bristled                          Bellicose                        Insults                            Combative

Grudging                        Irascible                         Swears                           Assaultive

Resentful                       Abrasive                        Curses                           Violent

Sarcastic                        Chronically                    Angry                            Foul-Mouthed

Complaining                   Pugnacious                                                        

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Dear Dr Rajneesh. Recently I read a blog where someone used a tremendous amount of sarcasm. I really felt that expression to be pent up anger which had no outlet. The person who uses sarcasm does not realize how much they can hurt others by their words. Perhaps the words are intended to hurt others? It also backfires and ricochets back to the speaker.

That is true Debby.

Sarcasm---  A keen reproachful expression; a satirical remark or expression, uttered with some degree of scorn or contempt; a taunt; a gibe. Of this we have an example in the remark of the Jews respecting Christ, on the cross, "He saved others, himself he cannot save.". Source: Webster's 1828 American Dictionary.

English Synonyms: sarcasm (व्यंग्य)
Position English Synonyms with Hindi Translations () (sorted by strength)


irony (व्याजोक्ति, निन्दा) ridicule (उपहास, ठठ्ठा) satire (व्यंग्य, निन्दोपाख्यान) gibe (ताना, उपहास) bitterness (कटुता, कार्कश्य) humor (हास्य, परिहास).
Consider also: cynicism (नास्तिवाद, मानवद्वेषवाद) insinuation (इशारा, चापलूसी) scorn (तिरस्कार करना, से घृणा करना) acrimony (कटुता, कडुवापन) derision (ठट्ठा, उपहास) mockery (नकल, उपहास) disparagement (नीचा दिखाना, तिरस्कार) witticism (विनोद, हाज़िरजवाबी) wittiness (हाज़िरजवाबी) acerbity (कठोरपन, कटुता) banter (हंसी करना, दिल्लगी करना) innuendo (सैन, इशारा) dryness (सूखापन, शुष्कता) imperfection (खोट, दोष) caprice (सनक, मौज) temper (स्वभाव, मनोदशा) insult (अपमान, अनादर) malice (द्वेष, ईर्ष्या) resentment (क्रोध, रोष).


satirize (का उपहास करना, की निन्दा करना) satirise (व्यंग्य कसना, उपहास करना).


satiric (व्यंग्यपूर्ण, प्रहसनात्मक) ironic (ताने के तौर पर, व्याजोक्तिरूप) ironical (व्यंग्यपूर्ण, विडंबनात्मक) humorous (विनोदी, मजाकिया).
Consider also: sardonic (बनावटी हंसी, नकली) comical (ठठोलिया, कौतुकी) funny (हास्यास्पद, मज़ाकिया) humourous (विनोदी) comic (हास्यप्रद, प्रहसन संबन्धी) droll (हासकर, विनोदक) sarcastic (व्यंग्यात्मक, निन्दापूर्ण) satirical (उपहासात्मक, निन्दक) wry (ऐंठा, मरोडा हुआ) farcical (स्वाँगपूर्ण, हंसी का) hilarious (हर्ष-भरा, उल्लसित) jocose (मजाकिया, विनोदी) jocular (परिहासशील, कौतुकी) playful (चंचल, चपल) burlesque (परिहास, तमाशे का) dry (सूखा, शुष्क) teetotal (अमत्त, मद्य त्याग करना).


jeer (ताना, उपहास) invective (अपवाद, गाली) lampoon (निन्दा करना, आक्षेप) pasquinade (किसी व्यक्ति पर व्यंगोक्ति, उपहास सख).

Anger can be of various types:
Anger from mortification: These people have an underprivileged self-esteem, which they mask by rebuking and dishonoring others.
Atrocious Anger: These people feel insecure, unreasonably vulnerable by others, and anger is an avenue of self-defense. They imagine that others are angry instead of recognizing their own wrath.
Expectation Anger: These people have a negative outlook and have unrealistic expectations of themselves and from others. Their root of anger is not accepting people as they are.
Forestalling Anger: These people are terrified of their own anger, or the anger of others. They are fearful of losing control and feel protected in peaceful situations.
Revulsion Anger: These people have an unresolved sentiment of anger, which causes resentment and they become hostile towards those they cannot forgive.
Impulsive Anger: These people feel loss of control and hence they are aggressive, go like a bullet, and can be a threat to themselves and others. Their actions are impulsive, for which they are later repentant.
Premeditated Anger: These people contemplate their anger, they like controlling others, and they get what they want by intimidating or overpowering others.
Principled Anger: These people are fanatics, self-opinionated and uncompromising. They do not comprehend other people and get heated when others not pass their expectations.
Obsessed Anger: These people get psychologically thrilled and find pleasure from their strong feelings of anger. They get angry frequently even at insignificant trifles, which tarnishes their relationships.
Underhanded Anger: These people by no means expose their anger. Their anger is exhibited in devious ways like disregarding things and others, frustrating others, mislaying their own requirements.
Causes of Anger:
• Fear, anxiety, depression.
• Feelings of hurt, disrespect, humiliation, embarrassment, dissatisfaction, jealousy, and sadness.
• Unable to forgive and forget.
• Lack of appreciation, feelings of rejection.
• Lack of control or controlling nature.
• Unfriendly, violent parents or other family members.
• Physical or sexual abuse.
• Substance abuse.
• Media violence.
Thanks Dr Sarswat... Regards.


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